Unit 6: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6: Learning Deck (41)
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1

Learning

A relatively permanent behavior change due to experience

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Our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances

Adaptability

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A decreasing response to a stimulus due to repeated exposure

Habituation

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Learning through two or more events that happen together.

Associative Learning

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Behaviorism

The view that psychology should be studied only through observable behaviors that are objectively quantifiable

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Founder of Behaviorism

John Watson

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Classical Conditioning

Learning through a system of pairing an unrelated stimulus (CS) with a naturally stimulus/response pair. (UCS/UCR)

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Operant Conditioning

Using rewards and punishments to increase or decrease behavior.

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Observational Learning

Learning by observing others

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Unconditioned Stimulus

A stimulus that *automatically* (no learning required) triggers a response (e.g. The food that is given to trigger salivation)

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Unconditioned Response

The unlearned, automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. salivation in response to food)

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Neutral Stimulus

Neutral stimulus is a stimulus that does not trigger a response. It will become the conditioned stimulus after it is successfully paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

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Conditioned Stimulus

A stimulus that previously did not trigger a response, but presenting immediately before the unconditioned stimulus, triggers a response similar to the unconditioned stimulus (e.g. The bell ringing before food is given, which eventually causes the dog to salivate)

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Conditioned Response

The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus that has been successfully paired with the unconditioned stimulus

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The initial process of pairing the neutral (which becomes conditioned) stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus.

Acquisition

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The unconditioned stimulus is paired with a new (second) conditioned stimulus - This stimulus will give a similar but weaker response as the original conditioned stimulus

High-Order (AKA Second-Order) Conditioning

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The diminishing of a conditioned response due to it no longer being paired with the unconditioned stimulus

Extinction

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The sudden re-occurrence of the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus after extinction due to re-pairing with the unconditioned stimulus

Spontaneous Recovery

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If, once conditioning has occurred, a person also reacts to stimuli that are slightly different from the original conditioned stimulus (e.g. Reacting to all small mammals if the original CS was a kitten)

Generalization

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If, once conditioning has occurred, a person only reacts to the specific qualities of the original CS (e.g. If the original CS was a kitten, reacting *only* to that specific type of kitten, rabbits, or full-grown cats)

Discrimination

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If a person (or animal) "gives up" after repeatedly being punished or failing a task, even if they could have succeeded had they tried. (e.g. Stop trying in math class after receiving several failing grades)

Learned Helplessness

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Genetic qualities that make it more likely for a person to form associations

Biological Predispositions

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In John Watson and Resalie Rayner's 1920 experiment on baby Albert, what was the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR?

UCS: Loud Noise UCR: Afraid CS: White Rat CR: Afraid of white rats

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What is the role of biology in associative learning?

Biological/evolutionary predispositions can influence how easily associations are made (e.g. it is easier for us to pair a negative emotion with spiders than it is for bunnies)

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Shaping

The use of operant conditioning (usually positive reinforcement) to train complex behaviors (reinforcing piece-by-piece)

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The person most closely associated with Operant Conditioning

B.F.Skinner

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The container used in operant conditioning where animals (often pigeons) were placed to easily and rapidly reinforce their behavior

Operant Conditioning Chamber - a.k.a. "Skinner Box"

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Positive reinforcement that is innately pleasurable

Primary reinforcer (food, drink, sex, feel-good drugs)

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Positive reinforcement that is reinforcing, because it *represents* something that is innately pleasurable

Secondary reinforcer (money, grades, tokens,...)

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A mental representation of a physical location

Cognitive map