A relatively permanent behavior change due to experience
Our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances
A decreasing response to a stimulus due to repeated exposure
Learning through two or more events that happen together.
The view that psychology should be studied only through observable behaviors that are objectively quantifiable
Founder of Behaviorism
Learning through a system of pairing an unrelated stimulus (CS) with a naturally stimulus/response pair. (UCS/UCR)
Using rewards and punishments to increase or decrease behavior.
Learning by observing others
A stimulus that *automatically* (no learning required) triggers a response (e.g. The food that is given to trigger salivation)
The unlearned, automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. salivation in response to food)
Neutral stimulus is a stimulus that does not trigger a response. It will become the conditioned stimulus after it is successfully paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A stimulus that previously did not trigger a response, but presenting immediately before the unconditioned stimulus, triggers a response similar to the unconditioned stimulus (e.g. The bell ringing before food is given, which eventually causes the dog to salivate)
The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus that has been successfully paired with the unconditioned stimulus
The initial process of pairing the neutral (which becomes conditioned) stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus.
The unconditioned stimulus is paired with a new (second) conditioned stimulus - This stimulus will give a similar but weaker response as the original conditioned stimulus
High-Order (AKA Second-Order) Conditioning
The diminishing of a conditioned response due to it no longer being paired with the unconditioned stimulus
The sudden re-occurrence of the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus after extinction due to re-pairing with the unconditioned stimulus
If, once conditioning has occurred, a person also reacts to stimuli that are slightly different from the original conditioned stimulus (e.g. Reacting to all small mammals if the original CS was a kitten)
If, once conditioning has occurred, a person only reacts to the specific qualities of the original CS (e.g. If the original CS was a kitten, reacting *only* to that specific type of kitten, rabbits, or full-grown cats)
If a person (or animal) "gives up" after repeatedly being punished or failing a task, even if they could have succeeded had they tried. (e.g. Stop trying in math class after receiving several failing grades)
Genetic qualities that make it more likely for a person to form associations
In John Watson and Resalie Rayner's 1920 experiment on baby Albert, what was the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR?
UCS: Loud Noise UCR: Afraid CS: White Rat CR: Afraid of white rats
What is the role of biology in associative learning?
Biological/evolutionary predispositions can influence how easily associations are made (e.g. it is easier for us to pair a negative emotion with spiders than it is for bunnies)
The use of operant conditioning (usually positive reinforcement) to train complex behaviors (reinforcing piece-by-piece)
The person most closely associated with Operant Conditioning
The container used in operant conditioning where animals (often pigeons) were placed to easily and rapidly reinforce their behavior
Operant Conditioning Chamber - a.k.a. "Skinner Box"
Positive reinforcement that is innately pleasurable
Primary reinforcer (food, drink, sex, feel-good drugs)
Positive reinforcement that is reinforcing, because it *represents* something that is innately pleasurable
Secondary reinforcer (money, grades, tokens,...)
A mental representation of a physical location