Unit 6: Learning Flashcards Preview

McGuinness AP Psychology > Unit 6: Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 6: Learning Deck (41):
1

Learning

A relatively permanent behavior change due to experience

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Our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances

Adaptability

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A decreasing response to a stimulus due to repeated exposure

Habituation

4

Learning through two or more events that happen together.

Associative Learning

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Behaviorism

The view that psychology should be studied only through observable behaviors that are objectively quantifiable

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Founder of Behaviorism

John Watson

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Classical Conditioning

Learning through a system of pairing an unrelated stimulus (CS) with a naturally stimulus/response pair. (UCS/UCR)

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Operant Conditioning

Using rewards and punishments to increase or decrease behavior.

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Observational Learning

Learning by observing others

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Unconditioned Stimulus

A stimulus that *automatically* (no learning required) triggers a response (e.g. The food that is given to trigger salivation)

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Unconditioned Response

The unlearned, automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. salivation in response to food)

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Neutral Stimulus

Neutral stimulus is a stimulus that does not trigger a response. It will become the conditioned stimulus after it is successfully paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

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Conditioned Stimulus

A stimulus that previously did not trigger a response, but presenting immediately before the unconditioned stimulus, triggers a response similar to the unconditioned stimulus (e.g. The bell ringing before food is given, which eventually causes the dog to salivate)

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Conditioned Response

The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus that has been successfully paired with the unconditioned stimulus

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The initial process of pairing the neutral (which becomes conditioned) stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus.

Acquisition

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The unconditioned stimulus is paired with a new (second) conditioned stimulus - This stimulus will give a similar but weaker response as the original conditioned stimulus

High-Order (AKA Second-Order) Conditioning

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The diminishing of a conditioned response due to it no longer being paired with the unconditioned stimulus

Extinction

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The sudden re-occurrence of the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus after extinction due to re-pairing with the unconditioned stimulus

Spontaneous Recovery

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If, once conditioning has occurred, a person also reacts to stimuli that are slightly different from the original conditioned stimulus (e.g. Reacting to all small mammals if the original CS was a kitten)

Generalization

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If, once conditioning has occurred, a person only reacts to the specific qualities of the original CS (e.g. If the original CS was a kitten, reacting *only* to that specific type of kitten, rabbits, or full-grown cats)

Discrimination

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If a person (or animal) "gives up" after repeatedly being punished or failing a task, even if they could have succeeded had they tried. (e.g. Stop trying in math class after receiving several failing grades)

Learned Helplessness

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Genetic qualities that make it more likely for a person to form associations

Biological Predispositions

23

In John Watson and Resalie Rayner's 1920 experiment on baby Albert, what was the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR?

UCS: Loud Noise UCR: Afraid CS: White Rat CR: Afraid of white rats

24

What is the role of biology in associative learning?

Biological/evolutionary predispositions can influence how easily associations are made (e.g. it is easier for us to pair a negative emotion with spiders than it is for bunnies)

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Shaping

The use of operant conditioning (usually positive reinforcement) to train complex behaviors (reinforcing piece-by-piece)

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The person most closely associated with Operant Conditioning

B.F.Skinner

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The container used in operant conditioning where animals (often pigeons) were placed to easily and rapidly reinforce their behavior

Operant Conditioning Chamber - a.k.a. "Skinner Box"

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Positive reinforcement that is innately pleasurable

Primary reinforcer (food, drink, sex, feel-good drugs)

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Positive reinforcement that is reinforcing, because it *represents* something that is innately pleasurable

Secondary reinforcer (money, grades, tokens,...)

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A mental representation of a physical location

Cognitive map

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When a solution to a problem presents itself quickly and without warning

Insight

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The desire to engage in an activity for the sake of its own enjoyment

intrinsic motivation

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The desire to engage in an activity in order to obtain an outcome

extrinsic motivation

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How is superstitious behavior explained by operant conditioning?

Reinforced behavior, even if it is accidental, is more likely to be repeated (e.g. sneezing before scratching off a winning lottery number will likely reinforce sneezing)

35

What happened in the "Bobo Doll" experiments?

Children watched adults either (1) beat up on, or (2) play nicely with, a inflated clown doll ("Bobo" doll), and played with the doll in a similar way as the adults - the experiment shows *Observational Learning*

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Who was the primary experimenter in the "Bobo Doll" experiments?

Albert Bandura

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Phobia

"Irrational" fear

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What are the four combinations of the schedules of reinforcement and what do they mean?

1. Fixed Ratio

2. Variable Ratio

3. Fixed Interval

4. Variable Interval

 

Fixed = You know when reinforcement will occur

Variable = Reinforcement occurs randomly

Interval = Reinforcement based on time

Ratio = Reinforcement based on action

39

What are the four combinations of HOW a stimulus is reinforced, and what do they mean?

1. Positive Punishment

2. Positive Reinforcement

3. Negative Punishment

4. Negative Reinforcement

 

Positive: Added

Negative: Taken away

Reinforcement: Designed to increase a behavior

Punishment: Designed to decrease a behavior

40

What is the name of the schedule of reinforcement in which a person is rewarded every time they do something?

Continuous

41

Three types of ineffective methods of Classical Conditioning

  • Trace Conditioning
    • CS
    • Short Break
    • UCS
  • Simultaneous Conditioning
    • CS and UCS presented at the same time
  • Backwards Conditioning
    • UCS presented before CS