Unit 5: States of Consciousness Flashcards Preview

McGuinness AP Psychology > Unit 5: States of Consciousness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 5: States of Consciousness Deck (44):
1

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

Consciousness

2

Our biological clock that keeps us on (roughly) a 24 hour sleep/wake cycle

Circadian rhythm

3

Small rice-sized part of the hypothalamus that controls our sleep/wake cycle.

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)

4

Body's naturally occurring sleep-inducing hormone

Melatonin

5

What are the five stages of sleep, in order?

6

How many minutes (roughly) does it take to cycle through the five stages of sleep?

90 minutes

7

Sleep stage accompanied by jerky, rapid eye movements

REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep

8

Device used to measure brain wave activity during sleep

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

9

What is the name of the brain waves while you are conscious and awake?

Alpha waves

10

Hallucinations that occur while trying to enter sleep (between Alpha and Stage 1 sleep)

Commonly described as being pressed down into your bed, or floating off the bed.

Hypnagogic Hallucinations

11

Hallucinations that occur immediately after waking (after a full sleep cycle)

Hypnopompic Hallucinations

12

Sensory experiences without a sensory stimulus

Hallucination

13

Bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity during stage 2 sleep

 

sleep spindles

14

Large slow brain waves emitted during stage 3 and 4 sleep

Delta waves

15

Which stage of sleep is the hardest to wake a person from?

Stage 3 and 4 (delta waves)

16

Stage of sleep near the end of the cycle characterized by a rise in heart rate, and rapid "saw-toothed" brain waves, similar to alpha (awake) waves

 

REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep

17

The name for all sleep stages except REM

NREM

18

Recurring inability to fall asleep naturally

Insomnia

19

Sleep condition characterized by experiences of extreme overwhelming sleepiness

Narcolepsy

20

Condition characterized by periods of time (~60 seconds) without breathing during sleep

Sleep Apnea

21

Sleep condition mostly in children, characterized by periodic episodes of doubled heart and breathing rates, and feelings of terror or dread

Night terror

Night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep

Nightmares occur during REM sleep

22

The actual content or storyline of our dreams

Manifest content

23

The deeper, symbolic meaning of the objects or story of our dreams

Latent content

24

What are some of the theories as to why we dream?

Satisfies wishes (Freud)

File away memories

Develop and preserve neural pathways

Makes sense of neural static

Reflects cognitive development

25

Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods

Psychoactive drugs

26

Diminishing effects from the same dosage of a drug due to continued use

Tolerance

27

Discomfort and distress following discontinuation of an addictive drug

Withdrawal

28

Physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

Physical dependence

29

The intense feeling of needing to use a drug, when the drug does not have any withdrawal symptoms when discontinued

Psychological dependence

30

Compulsive craving for a substance despite aversive consequences

Addiction

31

Class of drugs that calm neural activity and slow body function, including:

alcohol, barbituates (tranquilizers), opiates

Depressants

32

Barbituates

Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement

33

Class of drug that depresses neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety; includes opium, morphine and heroin

Opiates

34

Class of drug that excites neural activity and speeds up body functions (e.g. caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, extacy)

Stimulant

35

Amphetamines

A stimulant drug that stimulates neural activity, speeds up body functions, and is associated with energy and mood changes

36

Methamphetamine

An extremely addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, speeds up body functions, and causes energy and mood swings.

Causes the release of dopamine, which lowers baseline dopamine levels with continued use.

37

Nicotine

Addictive drug found in tobacco products

  1. Arouses the brain
  2. Increases heart rate and blood pressure
  3. Relaxes muscles and triggers stress-relieving neurotransmitters
  4. Reduces circulation to extremities
  5. Suppresses appetite

38

Cocaine

Causes the brain to release dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine (causing feelings of euphoria) - lasts for 15 to 30 minutes, followed by a crash.

39

Ecstacy

"Molly" - Synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Works by causing the release of dopamine, and preventing the reuptake of serotonin.

Causes feelings of euphoria and social closeness

Causes dehydration, impaired memory, and can harm serotonin producing cells in the body.

40

Class of drugs including LSD and "magic mushrooms" that distort perceptions and cause hallucinations

Hallucinogens

41

LSD

"acid" - Developed by a Swedish chemist in 1943 - powerful hallucinogenic drug

In addition to hallucinations, can cause feelings of euphoria, detachment, or panic.

42

Marijuana

Contains the active ingredient THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)

Effects are felt in roughly 7 seconds from smoking.

Causes feelings of euphoria and may produce mild hallucinations. Does not produce typical tolerance effects.

May be linked with an increase risk of developing psychological disorders later in life

43

Opiate drugs (feel good and pain relieving) which exist and are released naturally in our brain

Endorphins

44

A split between different levels of consciousness

Dissociation