Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Our biological clock that keeps us on (roughly) a 24 hour sleep/wake cycle
Small rice-sized part of the hypothalamus that controls our sleep/wake cycle.
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
Body's naturally occurring sleep-inducing hormone
What are the five stages of sleep, in order?
How many minutes (roughly) does it take to cycle through the five stages of sleep?
Sleep stage accompanied by jerky, rapid eye movements
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep
Device used to measure brain wave activity during sleep
What is the name of the brain waves while you are conscious and awake?
Hallucinations that occur while trying to enter sleep (between Alpha and Stage 1 sleep)
Commonly described as being pressed down into your bed, or floating off the bed.
Hallucinations that occur immediately after waking (after a full sleep cycle)
Sensory experiences without a sensory stimulus
Bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity during stage 2 sleep
Large slow brain waves emitted during stage 3 and 4 sleep
Which stage of sleep is the hardest to wake a person from?
Stage 3 and 4 (delta waves)
Stage of sleep near the end of the cycle characterized by a rise in heart rate, and rapid "saw-toothed" brain waves, similar to alpha (awake) waves
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep
The name for all sleep stages except REM
Recurring inability to fall asleep naturally
Sleep condition characterized by experiences of extreme overwhelming sleepiness
Condition characterized by periods of time (~60 seconds) without breathing during sleep
Sleep condition mostly in children, characterized by periodic episodes of doubled heart and breathing rates, and feelings of terror or dread
Night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep
Nightmares occur during REM sleep
The actual content or storyline of our dreams
The deeper, symbolic meaning of the objects or story of our dreams
What are some of the theories as to why we dream?
Satisfies wishes (Freud)
File away memories
Develop and preserve neural pathways
Makes sense of neural static
Reflects cognitive development
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods
Diminishing effects from the same dosage of a drug due to continued use
Discomfort and distress following discontinuation of an addictive drug
Physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
The intense feeling of needing to use a drug, when the drug does not have any withdrawal symptoms when discontinued
Compulsive craving for a substance despite aversive consequences
Class of drugs that calm neural activity and slow body function, including:
alcohol, barbituates (tranquilizers), opiates
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
Class of drug that depresses neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety; includes opium, morphine and heroin
Class of drug that excites neural activity and speeds up body functions (e.g. caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, extacy)
A stimulant drug that stimulates neural activity, speeds up body functions, and is associated with energy and mood changes
An extremely addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, speeds up body functions, and causes energy and mood swings.
Causes the release of dopamine, which lowers baseline dopamine levels with continued use.
Addictive drug found in tobacco products
- Arouses the brain
- Increases heart rate and blood pressure
- Relaxes muscles and triggers stress-relieving neurotransmitters
- Reduces circulation to extremities
- Suppresses appetite
Causes the brain to release dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine (causing feelings of euphoria) - lasts for 15 to 30 minutes, followed by a crash.
"Molly" - Synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Works by causing the release of dopamine, and preventing the reuptake of serotonin.
Causes feelings of euphoria and social closeness
Causes dehydration, impaired memory, and can harm serotonin producing cells in the body.
Class of drugs including LSD and "magic mushrooms" that distort perceptions and cause hallucinations
"acid" - Developed by a Swedish chemist in 1943 - powerful hallucinogenic drug
In addition to hallucinations, can cause feelings of euphoria, detachment, or panic.
Contains the active ingredient THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)
Effects are felt in roughly 7 seconds from smoking.
Causes feelings of euphoria and may produce mild hallucinations. Does not produce typical tolerance effects.
May be linked with an increase risk of developing psychological disorders later in life
Opiate drugs (feel good and pain relieving) which exist and are released naturally in our brain
A split between different levels of consciousness