Flashcards in Urinary System I & II Deck (79)
why is the renal cortex granular?
what marks the boundary between cortex and medulla?
what are the two parts of the cortex?
what makes up the pars convolute?
convoluted porteion of the distal and proximal tubules
what is the parenchyma of the urinary system and where is it located?
define renal lobule?
going from one interlobular blood vessel to the next interlobular blood vessel
what hemisects pars convoluta?
what marks the beginning of the DCT?
what type of capillaries do cortical nephrons have?
what type of capillaries do juxtamedullary nephrons have?
where do peritubular and vaca recta capillaries come off?
where do podocytes sit?
in urinary space
what happens if intraglomerular mesangial cells do not work?
what happens is there is no diaphragm present across slits?
what is it called when the pedicles are laying down and not doing their job (80% of kids)?
what organ has the largest basement membrane?
what are characteristics of the descending pars recta (straight portion) of the proximal tubule?
lined by simple cuboidal epithelium
prominent brush border
cells are shorter that PCT
region is often damaged in acute renal failure and mercury poisoning
initial part of thick descending limb of the loop of Henle
what kind of epithelium does the thin limb of the loop of Henle have?
simple squamous - buldging nucleus into lumen!
what type of epithelium makes up the thick limb of the loop of Henle?
simple cuboidal epithelium
nuclei in apical position
impermeable to water
what are features of the DCT?
begins at macula densa
nuclei in apical portion
what is the macula densa?
in DCT near afferent glomerular arteriole
one compartment of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
what are the cells like in macula densa?
lined up closely
= forms a dense spot
where is the juxtaglomerular apparatus located?
vascular pole fo renal corpuscle
what makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
modified smooth muscle cells of affront arteriole
extraglomerular mesangial cells
what is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
JG cells release renin in response to decreased EC fluid
what does renin act on?
angiotensinogen in plasma - converting it to angiotensin I
what converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
capillaries in lungs
what does angiotensin II do?
cause a release of aldosterone from the z. glomerulosa cells in adrenal cortex
potent vasoconstrictor, elevates BP
what does aldosterone do?
stimulates Distal tubule cells to retain Na - water follows Na