Jugular vein can be compressed with transducer pressure from skin. True or false
Purpose of superficial vein mapping to determine the veins ability to bypass conduit. True or false
used for coronary artery bypass pg 237
Purpose of venous reflux testing is see if venous is competent. True or false
False, to test for incompentacy
What is difficult to compress during duplex imaging?
clotted veins (pg 123)
arm veins such as innominate, subclavian, and proximal axillary due to proximity to the clavicle (pg 151)
At the level of the adductor canal, femoral vein difficult to compress due to depth of vessel and proximity of femur (pg 15)
The biceps femoris tendon may prevent compression of distal popliteal (pg 116)
Three factors of the Virchow's triad
Endothelial (vein wall) injury
What is the longest vein in the body?
Greater spahenous vein
Most important for ruling out DVT
What is the time when identifying vein reflux?
Deep veins > 1 sec
GSV, SSV > 0.5 sec
Perforating veins > 0.35sec
Is superficial femoral vein deep or superficial?
What plane is best to use for vein duplex imaging?
What are the risk factors for DVT?
- post operative state
- previous DVT
- high dose estrogen RX
- "economy class syndrome"
- Bed rest > 4 days
- lower limb paralysis
- (pg 111 and beths powerpoint)
Which veins have valves and which do not
No valves: IVC, common iliac vein, and external iliac vein (in most)
Valves: femoral 4, pop 2, PTV 10, per 10, ATV 10
CFV lies in what canal
Is the basilic vein deep or superficial?
Perforators from GSV are what?
Cockett's are ankle perforators
Sherman's and Boyd's are knee perforators
Dodd's and Hunterian are thigh perforators
When is adequate pressure applied to compress a vein?
When the companion artery is deformed
Which veins are pulsatile?
internal jugular, subclavian, innominate, axillary
(powerpoint and pg 105)
Compression technique is not used when?
When a free-floating clot is present
What is the lethal complication of acute DVT?
Signs and symptoms of acute DVT
Persistent leg pain
persistant leg swelling
In the presents of incompetent valves, what does distal aug produce?
flow above the baseline
Identify deep veins
deep arm veins: superior vena cava, innominate, subclavian, axillary, brachial, radial, and unlar
deep leg veins: IVC, CIV, IIV, EIV, common fem, femoral, deep femoral vein, pop vein, anterior tibials, posterior tibials, abd peroneal
Most important diagnostic of veins
What position does the popliteal vein lie in relation to the popliteal artery?
pop vein on top
What chronic complication occurs after DVT?
postphlebitic (postthrombotic) syndrome
(looked up online)
Upper extremity DVT is common in patients with what?
PICC line, catheter
Term for anatomical varient in lower extremity?
May-Thurner Syndrome pg 130
Bifid femoral vein pg 98
Symptoms related to venous insufficiency
- recurrent calf, ankle, or foot swelling
- venous claudication
- stasis dermatitis
- chronic limb swelling
- pg 135
Why is Doppler angle correction not necessary in venous imaging
There is no need to measure venous velocity
In what position should you preform venous imaging?
steep reverse Trendelenburg or semi-Fowlers position
Lesser saphenous vein into what vein?
Venous Doppler exam reveals above baseline flow demonstrates what?
Implies thrombus is at least several months old
vein is contracted
may be so contracted that it may not be apparent on ultrasound
DVT annual estimates
1 - 10 million cases of DVT
600,000 cases of pulmonary embolus
200,000 deaths from PE