Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (54):
What are the functions of the spinal cord?
It projects weight onto the pelvis and lower limbs and also protects the passage of the spinal cord. It has a role in shock absorption, as well as the segmental innervation of the body.
How do vertebral bodies change down the spine?
They increase in size and are subjected to a higher compression force.
Name two boney structures which are supported by the spinal column.
Skull and the ribs.
Name the parts of the vertebral arch and which is closer to the ventral body?
Lamina and pedicle. The pedicle is closest to the vertebral body.
What different processes are present on a vertebrae?
Transverse, spinous, articulating processes.
Through where on vertebrae do spinal nerves emerge?
The intervertebral foramina.
State the synovial joint which is present between vertebrae.
There is a synovial joint between the superior and inferior articulating processes which are lined with cartilage.
What structures make the intervertebrae foramina?
The superior and inferior notches.
What type of joint is the articulation of superior and inferior articulating processes?
What type of joints are the interventricular discs?
These are cartilaginous and amphiarthrosis.
What are the two parts of an intervertebral disc?
Annulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus.
What can be said about the bands of the annulus pulposus?
The outer bands are cartilaginous and the inner are fibrocartilaginous. They are avascular, aneural and major shock absorbers.
What is a property of the nucleus pulposus?
It has high osmotic pressure and sucks water in. It is a gelatinous remnant of the notochord.
Where do slipped discs normally occur?
L4/5 or L5/S1. Posterior laterally at these places and this leads to nerve root compression.
What are the four stages of a slipped disc?
Disc degeneration, prolapse, extrusion, sequestrian.
What is the difference between disc degeneration and prolapse?
Disc degeneration includes weakening of the disc with age. Prolapse is when there is protrusion leading to impingement of the spinal cord.
What is the difference between extrusion and sequestrian?
In both cases the nucleus pulposus breaks through the annulus fibrosis. In extrusion this remains within the disc space but with sequestrian this causes compression by lying outside of the disc space.
What is marginal osteophytosis?
This is where the nucleus pulposus dehydrates and so the disc decreases in height changing load stresses and leading to margin osteophytosis adjacent to the affected end plates.
What is cervical spondylosis?
Degenerative osteoarthritis of the intervertebral joints in the cervical spine. This leads to compression of the nerve roots as foramina size is decreased.
What is the name for when there is pressure on nerve roots?
What are some symptoms of Radiculopathy?
Dermatomes sensory symptoms and myotomal motor weakness.
What is myelopathy?
This is global weakness and gait dysfunction caused by pressure on the spinal cord.
Name a distinguishing feature of the thoracic vertebrae compared to other vertebrae?
They have Demi-facets and costal facets for articulation of the ribs.
Describe the vertebral foramen on the thoracic vertebrae.
Small and circular vertebral foramen.
What movements are permitted in the thoracic region of the spine?
Flexion is limited, but rotation is permitted.
What is the common movement in the lumbar spine?
What can be said about the foramen of the lumbar vertebrae?
They have small triangular foramen.
Name two distinguishing features of cervical vertebrae.
They have transverse foramen in the transverse processes and they have buried spinous processes.
What structures pass through the cervical transverse foreman?
Vertebral artery and vein.
Describe the vertebral body of a cervical vertebrae.
The vertebral body is small but broad side to side
What is the name of the first cervical vertebrae?
Describe the vertebral foramen of the cervical vertebrae.
It is large and triangular.
What joint facilitates nodding of the head?
Atlanto-occipital joint of atlas and the occipital of the skull.
What movement is facilitated at the Atlanto-axial joint?
Lateral rotation of the head. (Shaking)
Describe the structure of C2.
This has an odontoid process called Dens and a large spinous process.
What structure maintains the position of Dens within the C1 vertebrae?
What type of X-ray is used to identify peg fracture of C2?
What is a hangmans fracture?
This is caused by hyperextension of the neck and leads to fracture through the pedicles.
What is a Jeffersons fracture?
This is fracture of the anterior and posterior arches of the atlas caused by an axial load.
What is different about C7 compared to all of the other cervical vertebrae?
It has a large spinous process which is non-bifid
What happens during whiplash injury?
In whiplash injury, there is hyperextension or hyperflexion and this leads to compression and then release of the spinal cord.
What is the shape of the spine in a fetus?
It shows primary curvature - a C shaped kyphosis.
Where in the adult spine are lordosises present?
In the cervical and lumbar regions.
What is senile kyphosis?
This is loss of secondary curvatures of the spine and reestablishment of primary curvature.
What happens to spine curvature during pregnancy?
In pregnancy, the lumbar lordosis is exacerbated.
What is scheuermann's disease?
This is where there is uneven growth leading to a longer posterior border to anterior usually in the thoracic region.
What is scoliosis?
This is lateral curvature of the spine and is usually cosmetic implications. When severe it can cause decreased lung capacity.
What problems are associated with kyphoscoliosis?
Reduced lung capacity, pulmonary hypertension and spinal cord compression.
What is the anterior longitudinal ligament?
This is found on the front of the vertebral bodies and prevents hyper extension.
Where is the posterior longitudinal ligament found?
It is found on the back of the vertebral bodies and prevents hyperflexion.
What is the ligamentous flavum?
This is between the lamina of adjacent vertebrae of the spine and is stretched during flexion.
What is the role of the interspinous ligament?
These are relatively weak sheets of fibrous tissue which unite spinous processes.
What is the supraspinous ligament?
This is fused with the interventricular ligament and joins the tips of the adjacent spinous processes.