Flashcards in Common Fractures Deck (34):
If a patient has a fracture, what signs and symptoms might they present with?
Pain, swelling, crepitus, abnormal movement, loss of function, deformity and bony tenderness.
What feature of fracture can increase osteoarthritis risk?
If the break occurs across a joint surface.
In none repair, the body can correct for straightness in which direction?
In the direction of flexion/extension. Rotation of the bones can not be corrected.
What is a pathological fracture?
This is when a fracture occurs under a physiological load.
What regional factors can affect bone healing?
Muscle cover and blood supply
Name some local factors which affect bone healing.
Infection, treatment, bone type, injury, fracture configuration and soft tissue injury.
What systemic factors affect bone healing?
Age, co-morbidity, bone pathology.
What unusual injury leads to good bone healing?
Head injury due to the hormones released.
What is malunion?
This is where there is deformity and later arthrosis of the bone fragments.
What are the two different types of non-Union in bone healing?
Hypertrophic where constant movement of bone fragments prevents healing and atrophic where there is poor bone quality or blood supply.
What is myositis ossificans and when does it occur?
This is when calcification occurs in the muscle following haemorrhage.
What is compartment syndrome?
This is where there is increased pressure in a facial space causing localised tissue damage.
What is the treatment for compartment syndrome?
What is a complication associated with open fractures?
What are possible consequences of growth plate fractures in children?
It can cause growth arrest or can lead to bones growing twisted and not straight.
Name two incomplete fractures in children and their causes:
Buckles caused by compression and green stick caused by tension.
Where are stress fractures common and what causes them?
These are caused by frequent non-violent stresses, and are common in the legs, spine and feet.
What can reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures?
Weight bearing exercise before the age of 35 years, vit D and calcium intake.
What is the first fracture specific examination carried out?
Neurovascular to check for any damage to these structures.
In what planes do X Ray's need to be taken?
X-rays need to be taken in two planes, at right angles too each other so that no injuries are missed.
Name three methods for joint immobilisation.
Plaster of Paris, external fixators and traction.
What are the advantages on operative treatment on fractures?
Protection of soft tissue and avoids infection, implants are biologically inert to avoid complication, and allows timely muscle and joint rehab.
Where are clavicle fractures common?
In the middle third of the clavicle.
How are proximal humeral fractures treated?
Internal fixation or complete joint replacement. This occurs at the surgical neck of the humerus.
What is a collies fracture?
Fracture of radius at the wrist, posterior displacement
What is the name of the fracture at the wrist which has anterior displacement of the fragments?
What nerve can smiths fracture cause damage to?
Median nerve injury.
What clinical sign indicates scaphoid fracture and what is the risk associated with this fracture?
Pain in anatomical snuffbox, and avascular necrosis due to lack of blood supply to the scaphoid bone.
What type of hip fracture shows a high avascular necrosis risk?
What is the common treatment for an extracapsular hip fracture?
Dynamic hip screw
When are tibial shaft raptures common?
RTC, sports and falls
What is a common presentation of tibial shaft fractures?
Commonly open fracture.
What complication is associated with tibial shaft fracture?
Increased risk of compartment syndrome.