Flashcards in Aging Deck (17):
What happens to articular cartilage as we age?
It gets worn down due to wear and tear.
How do intervertebral discs change as we age?
These dehydrate and become less good at shock absorbtion.
What changes occur to cells in MSK once we reach adulthood?
There is a decrease in the number of cells, and these cells are less able to regenerate and have increased genetic mutations.
What happens to bone mass with age?
This is decreased, and there is also decreased mineralisation meaning that falls lead to a higher risk of fracture.
State some factors which increase bone mass loss.
Poor vit D/ calcium intake, decreased hormones, and inactivity
What is sarcopenia?
This is decreased muscle mass due to decreased muscle fibres.
Name 3 causes of falls.
Falls can be caused by gait changes, propriception changes and increased environmental hazards.
What might happen to synovial fluid quantities in the elderly?
Because the joints creak, and the surfaces are roughened this can lead to increased synovial fluid in the joint cavity.
What is osteoporosis?
This is bone fragility caused by decreased bone mass and loss of micro architecture of bone.
What is the difference between type I and II osteoporosis?
Type I occurs due to a lack of oestrogen meaning that osteoblasts are less stimulated and so overall there is loss of bone mass. Type II is senile and a result of the aging process or some other pathological reason such as low calcium.
What are bisphosphonates?
These inhibit osteoclast activity, which therefore leads to an increase in bone mineralisation.
What is hemiarthroplasty?
This is replacement of a joint.
What is osteoarthritis?
This is a disorder of synovial joints which leads to focal areas of damage to cartilage. Underlying bone remodels and osteophytes at joint margins occur.
What changes are seen on an X-ray for a person with osteoarthritis?
Decreased joint spacing, and changed bone density.
What is a sprain?
This is when there is damage to ligaments and this can cause joint instability.
State some consequences of total knee replacement.
Leg length disparity, dislocation, infection, loosening and neurovascular damage.