Flashcards in Bones And Joints Deck (42):
Name some of the functions of the skeleton.
Support, protection, movement, mineral/growth factor storage, haematopoeisis
Give an example of an irregular bone.
What is a sesamoid bone?
This is a bone which is embedded within a tendon, such as the patella.
Describe the difference between a long bone and a short bone.
A long bone is made up primarily of compact bone, whilst a short bone is made up of spongy bone.
Where is the blood supply to a bone?
Typically, bones have a nutrient artery which supplies the diaphysis.
What are the name of the arteries which supply the outer 1/3 of the cortex of bone?
What can be said about blood supply and growth plates?
Arteries do not cross the growth plates. This means that the epiphysises of the bone must have their own blood supply.
What is a common complication which must be considered in bone fracture?
Avascular necrosis. The necrotic bone can collapse and lead to secondary arthritis.
What is the functional classification of a joint?
This defines how movable a joint is. It includes synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis.
This is an immovable joint.
What is the functional classification of a joint that is freely moveable?
What is an amphiarthrosis?
This is a slightly moveable joint.
What are the three structural classifications of joints?
Fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial.
What is a fibrous joint?
A joint in which the articulating bones are held very closely together by fibrous connective tissue.
What is a syndesmosis and what classification of joint does it fall into?
These joints are amphiarthrosis as they allow small amounts of movement, and are found in places such as the interosseous membrane in the forearm. Structurally they are fibrous joints.
What is a gomphosis? What functional classification is this?
This is a joint in which a peg fits into a cone shaped socket, like the tooth into the jaw bone. It is a synarthrosis.
Give an example of a fibrous joint found on the cranium
Describe what a cartilaginous joint is?
It is a joint in which the two articulating bones are joined by cartilage.
What is a synchondrosis?
This is a cartilaginous joint such as a epiphyseal growth plate where the two bones are joined by hyaline cartilage.
What is a symphysis?
This is a cartilaginous joint where there is a fibrocartilage pad between the two bones. An example is an intervertebral disk.
Define a synovial joint. What functional classification are they normally represented by?
It is a joint which has a capsule containing synovial fluid. Normally these are freely moveable joints and are classified as diarthrosis.
What is the most common type of joint?
List three features of a synovial joint:
Articular cartilage, fibrous capsule, synovial membrane.
What is the role of articular cartilage in a synovial joint?
It allows a smooth low friction movement and resists compression.
What is the role of the fibrous capsule?
It encloses and stabilises the joint, except where there are synovial protrusions.
What structures in a synovial joint are covered with synovial membrane, and what is its function?
All surfaces except the articular cartilage. It is a thinly vascularised membrane which secretes synovial fluid.
Define a bursae
A bursae is a sac lined with synovial membrane, filled with synovial fluid which can be communicating/ non-communicating with the joint cavity.
What name is given to an elongated bursa which is wrapped around a tendon?
State two properties of synovial fluid.
It is a pale yellow/clear and slightly alkaline fluid.
Name three roles of synovial fluid in joints:
Reduces friction, shock absorption and transport of nutrients and waste products.
Why do joints have a periarticular arterial plexus?
This ensures that when the joint is in its fully flexed position there is still sufficient blood supply.
What is hiltons law?
Nerves supplying the joint capsule also supply the skin over the joint and the muscles which move the joint.
What are interarticular menisci/ discs comprised of?
They are fibrocartilage and not synovial covered.
What is a planar joint?
This is where the articulating surface is flat/curved and the two bones slide/glide over one and other.
Give an example of a hinge joint.
What parts make up a pivot joint?
Pivot joints are where a rounded bone articulates with a ring formed from a cavity and a fibrous ligament.
What type of joint is the metacarpophalangeal joint?
This is a condyloid/ ellipsoidal joint where the oval condyloid of one bone rests in the elliptical cavity of another bone.
What movements can be performed at a saddle joint?
Flexion, extension, abduction, Adduction. This is because it is like a saddle sitting over a horses back.
What is a distinct property of a ball and socket joint?
They show a large range of movement (multi axial) but also for this reason are quite unstable.
Name some features which can affect joint stability.
Bone strength and structure, ligament strength, arrangement of muscles and tone, apposition of neighbouring soft tissues, use/ disuse.
What three changes occur to joints when we age?
Reduced synovial fluid production, thinking of articular cartilage and shortening of ligaments.