Flashcards in Limb Circulation Deck (21):
Describe the fate of the femoral artery
The femoral artery runs through the adductor hiatus to the back of the leg and becomes the popliteal artery. It then splits into anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery
What artery supplies the muscles of the back of the thigh?
Deep artery of thigh
Where does the hip joint circulation come from?
The medial and lateral circumflex branches which are from the deep artery of thigh.
What is the role of the obturator artery?
This is a continuation of internal iliac, and it assists the deep artery of thigh to supply the adductor muscles.
Where is the femoral pulse found?
At the midpoint between ASIS and the pubic symphysis, inferior to the inguinal ligament.
What is the blood supply to the knee joint?
The genicular arteries. There are four, superior medial and lateral and inferior medial and lateral.
Why is it necessary for arteries to anastomoses around the knee joint?
To ensure that blood supply to the lower limb is maintained in both flexion and extension.
What is the origin of the Dorsalis pedis artery?
This is a branch of the popliteal artery which passes through the interosseous membrane to the front of the leg. It then continues down the front of the leg, onto the dorsum of the foot.
What is intermittent claudication?
This is where there is pain on walking/exercise, relieved by rest and is usually due to atheromatous plaque which leads to limited blood supply and ischaemia to muscles of the legs.
What is ankle-brachial pressure index?
This is taken with the patient lying down and is calculated leg/arm. Normal range is 0.9-1.2.
Why is occlusion of blood vessels so clinically important?
If radius decreases by 1/2, then this means flow rate will decrease by 1/16 because flow is proportional to r^4.
Name some signs of peripheral arterial disease.
Lack of hair, skin problems, ulcers, infection, skin necrosis, loss of pulses, cold to touch.
When can ischaemia happen in the leg?
Atheromatous plaque and thrombus formation, or also because of swelling/inflammation or bleeding within a tight fascial compartment leading to increased pressure.
What is the cause of a palpable pulsating mass in the popliteal fossa?
When is the popliteal artery at risk of rupture?
Distal fracture of the femur or dislocation of the knee.
What is saphenous cut down?
If struggling to canulate then can use this method. Saphenous vein is fairly deep. Risk of damage to saphenous nerve, and therefore loss of sensation on medial border of the foot.
Name two ways in which blood flow in the legs is assisted.
Venae comitantes, pumping action of the calf muscles.
When do varicose veins occur?
When the valves don't meet. This can cause the veins to become engrossed.
What can venous insufficiency in the leg cause?
Stasis of blood and ulcers on the medial aspect of the leg
Name three factors which can lead to DVT
Stasis of blood, hypercoaguability and vascular damage.