W4-2 Pharmacodynamics Flashcards Preview

Foundations > W4-2 Pharmacodynamics > Flashcards

Flashcards in W4-2 Pharmacodynamics Deck (23):
1

Agonist

Activates biochemical events, "evokes response"

2

Most common second messenger system

G-protein coupled receptors

3

Best known pharmacologic interaction mechanism

Ligand-gated ion channels

4

Pharmaceuticals often bind ________ proteins in order to ________ transcription

chaperone, inactivate

5

Major reason for drug-drug interactions

Overlapping 2nd messenger systems

6

Two types of drugs that do not interact with receptors

Chelating agents
Volatile anesthetics

7

Antimetabolites

Interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis

8

What is EC50?

The amount of drug needed to elicit 50% of the maximal response

9

Affinity

1/Kd (1/dissociation constant)

10

Potency

Compares relative drug strengths

11

Antagonist

Inhibits action of agonist, efficacy alpha = 0

12

Quantal Dose Effect

Population response, "all or nothing" response over very narrow concentration range

13

Tachyphylaxis

Hyporeactivity induced rapidly after a few doses

14

Therapeutic index

TI=LD50/ED50
Higher is better

15

Cyt P-450 types for codeine metabolism

More 2D6 than 3A4
Quinidine reduces 2D6
Grapefruit juice reduces 3A4

16

3 benefits of personalized medicine

1. Safer drugs
2. Increased effectiveness
3. Dosages calculated on genetics

17

2 alleles that can be examined before starting warfarin therapy

VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase)
CYP2C9 (cytochrome p450 2C9)

18

Molecular test that may be used for detecting SNPs

Deep sequencing
Exon trapping
Direct sequencing

19

Describe general role of cytochrome p450 gene family

Drug metabolism, activation and breakdown

20

3 general types of metabolizers and the significance for pain management

"Poor metabolizers" cannot metabolize codeine
"Extensive metabolizers" can metabolize codeine
"Ultrarapid metabolizers" metabolize codeine too quickly

21

When is a genetic test needed prior to administering cancer therapy?

When we look for specific biomarkers to attack

22

Golden equation of flow

delta P
flow= ------------
R

23

Gut associate lymphoid tissue

trained by normal intestinal flora to respond appropriately to invaders