W3-4 Cholesterol Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in W3-4 Cholesterol Metabolism Deck (22):
1

Ultimate precursor of all cholesterol synthesized de novo

Acetyl-CoA

2

How many carbons is cholesterol? Made from how many acetyl-CoAs?

27 C

from 15 acetyl-CoAs

3

Rate determining/drug targeting step

HMG-CoA reductase

blocked by statins

4

How is cholesterol synthesis regulated on transcription level?

5

What promotes the degradation of HMG-CoA reductase?

High sterol levels

6

How is HMG-CoA reductase regulated on a whole-body metabolism level?

7

2 ways liver ships cholesterol

VLDLs

bile acids

8

Chylomicrons in intestinal epithelium cells

nascent chylomicrons

(nascent means 'new')

9

This Apo protein is always present on chylomicrons

ApoB-48

10

HDLs add this apoprotein to chylomicrons to activate them

ApoC II

11

Chylomicrons are mostly what?

TAGs

12

Cholesterol is often bound to what molecule for transport from the liver?

FA

13

This apo protein is always bound to VLDLs

ApoB-100

14

HDLs add which apoprotein to VLDLs to activate them?

ApoC II

15

Draw out VLDL and chylomicron activation and metabilism in blood

16

Familial hypercholesterolemia pathology

LDL receptor miscoding, does not allow LDLs to be endocytosed

17

Xanthoma

subcutaneous fat deposits

18

Describe how atherosclerotic plaques are formed

  1. Excess LDLs captured under intima of blood vessels
  2. Macrophages consume this fat and become foam cells
  3. Foam cells die and leave plaque

19

Three metabolic uses of cholesterol

Membranes

Steroid hormones

Bile acids

20

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Disease in women that causes increased androgen synthesis and decreased cortisol and androgen synthesis

21

Steroid hormones act through what type of regulation?

transcriptional

22