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Flashcards in Translation Deck (18):
1

Start codon

AUG

2

Which end of tRNA contains the anticodon?

5'

3

Which end of tRNA is attached to the amino acid?

3'

4

Where does the energy come from that adds consecutive amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain?

Energy stored in the aa bond between 3' end and tRNA

5

Wobble base-pairing has what distinct evolutionary advantage?

Allows for fewer tRNAs

6

Enzymes that assemble aa onto tRNAs

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

7

Which is correct:

A. Peptides are synthesized C-->N terminus
B. Peptides are synthesized N-->C terminus

B

8

T/F Each amino acid carries with it the energetic bond used to attach it to the former aa

F it carries for the next aa

9

Where are ribosomes produced?

Nucleolus (not just nucleus)

10

This ribosomal subunit attaches to the mRNA first

Small subunit

11

Function of small ribosomal subunit

Match tRNA to condon

12

Function of large ribosomal subunit

Form peptide bonds

13

Name and describe three pockets on ribosome complex attached to mRNA

A--aminoacyl (incoming)
P-peptide (existing)
E-exiting (tRNAs)

14

T/F Only one tRNA can be attached in the ribosome complex at any one time

F, two

15

Describe the steps in translation initiation in eukaryotes

1. Met tRNA is added to small subunit
2. Small subunit binds to 5' end of mRNA, recognizes cap and initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G
3. Small subunit alone moves along mRNA to find first AUG sequence
4. Initiation factors removed
5. Large subunit attached
6. Initiator tRNA occupies P site
7. Next tRNA can enter A site

16

Describe eukaryotic translation elongation

1. Next tRNA binds in site A
2. Peptidyl transferase adds peptide to growing peptide
3. Conformation changes move ribosome 3 bp down and eject tRNA from E site

17

These assist in elongation

Elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G

18

Describe translation termination

Protein release factors bind stop condons and add water to peptide chain, freeing final tRNA