Week 8: L1: Violence In Relationships Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 8: L1: Violence In Relationships Deck (18)
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National family violence surveys

- occasional violence is reported in 50% of American couples
- measures with the Conflict Tactics Scale - 19 types of events ranging from sulking to using guns/knives
- married couples 16% report at least 1 act of physical aggression over past year; dating/cohabiting - 30%


Risk factors for violence

- younger
- dating/co-habiting
- less well-educated
- more likely to
• be unemployed
• abuse drugs and alcohol
• less satisfied with relationship
• depressed and anxious


Situational couple violence

Both men and women do it; usually doesn't escalate, happens once every 1-2 months, seems to result from prolonged, unsuccessful attempts to resolve conflict


Intimate terrorism (Johnson, 1995)

- power-related violence
- formerly called "patriarchal" - may be culturally sanctioned but may also be an individual behaviour pattern
- power: "the ability if one person to intentionally influence the behaviour of another person"


Power and dependency

- dependency is key to power
- the "principle of least interest" - the person who has least interest in continuing the relationship has more power
- all kinds of relationships


Power bases - French and Raven (1968)

- reward power
- legitimate power
- referent power: charismatic leader, or someone whose loved
- expert power
- coercive power - force, violence


Intimate terrorism violence

- happens frequently in some families
- invariably escalates
- initiated almost exclusively by men
- pattern is one of general power and control using a number of tactics
- using coercion and threats, emotional blackmail, male privilege, intimidation - stalking/surveillance, isolation, children as weapon, economic abuse


Partner homicide

- overwhelming men who kill their partners
- men are more likely they w to kill others outside intimate relationships
- m also kill ex-partners, and frequently commit suicide following partner homicide


Reasons for intimate terrorism

Evolutionary theory
- held to stem from paternity uncertainty and to motivate possessive, controlling behaviors
- aim is to control sexual access
- note role of jealousy
Supports from studies of economic power in marriage


Intimate terrorist behaviour

Such men use few positive behaviours but many negative ones
- extreme needs for attention and reassurance
- unrealistic expectations of intimacy
Consequences - intrusive, angry, controlling an jealousy behaviors


Abandonment panic

- have a fear of being abandoned
- interpret signs of partner independence as abandonment
- extreme dependency on partners
- perceived lack of power


Sociological perspective on violence in relationship

Social learning theory
- important role of witnessing parental violence, as opposed to being victims of domestic violence
- women develop schemas that this is normal through parental violence
- may also make women less skilled at self-protection, less self-confident, and more likely to accept victimization
Women's extreme violence in relationships is usually "reactive"


Who do intimate terrorists blame?

- others
- external or transient states
- extenuating factors and justifications
- by denying responsibility, can continue to behave violently
- attributional pattern matches clinical description of violent men - reluctant to seek therapy and resistant to it


Obsessive relationship intrusion (ORI) (Cupach & Spitzberg, 1995)

- repeated and unwanted pursuit and invasion of one's sense of physical or symbolic privacy by another person, either stranger or acquaintance, who desires and/or presumes an intimate relationship
- ORI characteristics
• unrequited love (victim suffers more than obsessor)
• repeated, persistent, escalates
Fusion - complete dependence in a partner; identity fusion


ORI pursuer characteristics

- unsuccessful in love
- lonely and socially isolated
- insecure and hypersensitive to the threat of abandonment


ORI intrusive behaviours

- includes unwanted attention; spying, surveillance, unwanted phone calls and emails
- tend to range from mild to severe
- fuzzy boundaries, and victim responses may differ



- severe form of ORI
- willful, malicious and repeated foowing and harassing of another person that threatens his/her safety
- a variety of motivations for stalking, including punishment and revenge for perceived or real rejection
- intimate stalking
• 53% of stalkers were prior sexual intimates
• 87% are men
• common notice is "reconciliation"
• victims experience fear and loss of self-confidence and trust


Why don't stalkers get it?

Oblivious to the distress they cause because:
- they are egocentric
- rationalize appropriateness of behaviour
- guided by cultural script that encourages persistence