Week 10: L2: The Nature Of Friendship Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 10: L2: The Nature Of Friendship Deck (19)
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Attributes of friendship

Someone with whom:
- we are intimate, can trust
- depend on
- shares, is accepting, caring
- we are close, enjoy
Additional attributes
- equality
- authenticity
- respect


3 themes of friendship

- affective: share personal thoughts and feelings
- communal: participate in communal activities, similarity, and giving and receiving practical assistance
- sociable: source of amusement, fun and recreation
- defintion: voluntary, personal rship, typically providing intimacy and assistance, in which two parties like one another and seek each others company


Types of friendship

- casual (numerous)
- close (typically 4-6)
- best (typ. 1)
Married men freq refer to wives as 'best friends' but not vica versa


What are friends for?

- attentive and supportive recognition of our needs
- good friends enhance out delight when we share good news or events with them
Social support
- emotional, advice, material


How friendship differs from love

- Both include positive and warm evaluations, but romantic love includes fascination, sexual desire and exclusivity
- fships have less restrictive social norms and are easier to dissolve
- fships less likely to involve overt expressions of positive emotions and friends generally spend less free time together than romantic partners do


Friendship in infancy

1 year
- capable of complementary and reciprocal interactions
2 yrs
- pairs of children sometimes gravitate towards one another
- play is associative, cooperative and enjoyable
Preschool years
- label playmates as friends


Friendship in childhood

- grow richer and more complex
- partly due to cog dev -> children are increasingly able to take others perspectives, understand other viewpoints


Stages of childhood friendship (Selman, 1981)

Before 10
- fair weather cooperation: friendships self-interest rather than mutual interests
Middle school 10-13 yrs
- intimate-mutual sharing: collaboration that serves everyone's interests
- exclusive and possessive rship
Teen yrs (13+)
- autonomous independence: no single fship can fulfill all needs
Success in childhood fshipsay pave the way for better adult outcomes


Friendship in adolescence and young adulthood

- less time is spent w families and more time with peers
- friends are increasingly turned to increasingly to satisfy important attachment needs
- no of opposite-sex fships increase
- fships may involve arguments, teasing, competition, and peer pressure
Young adulthood
- intimacy vs isolation
- after college = fewer friends, but deeper, more interdependent fships


Friendships in mid-life

- Dyadic withdrawal: more time is spent w romantic partner, less with friends
- esp affects fem friendships and opposite-sex fships
- fships w other couples and w other parents may prosper


Fships in old age

Elderly have smaller social networks and fewer friends than young people -> esp men. Why?
- social barriers to friendship
- disengagement perspective
- quality vs quantity argument
Elderly who have good friends love longer and have healthier lives that those with fewer social connections


Gender diffs in fships

Women: face-2-face
- emotional sharing and disclosure
- Women closer and more intimate
Men: side-by-side
- shared activities, companionship and fun


Close male fships

- men stimes lack friends to turn to for sensitive, sympathetic understanding and support
- men capable of being expressive and close as women, but choose not to be. Why?
• social role norms
• when norms make it appropriate, men self-disclose more than w
• cultural differences


Can men and w be close friends?

- common but post-university intimate cross-sex fships can be difficult to maintain. Why?
• determining whether rship is fship or romantic
• problems of sexual tension
• cross-sex fship can be tricky when ppl are married to others


Individual difference in fship

High need for intimacy
- high self-disclosure and loyalty
- behave more kindly towards friends
- share more and listen more
- can struggle with social interactions
- engage in a pattern of excessive reassurance seeking
- cyclical rship: interpersonal rejection -> unfriendliness -> harder to attract friends



- definition: combines social reticence as inhibition behaviour with nervous discomfort is social settings
- 80% of ppl have exp shyness
- feel: self-conscious, inept, uncomfortable, worried, ineffective
- chronic shyness: fear negative eval from others, poor self-reward, lower social skills
- engage in cyclical behavior: adopt a cautious and withdrawn style interaction that deflects interest and enthusiasm from others



- occurs when we want more, or more satisfying, connections with others than we currently have
• social isolation vs emotional isolation
- some personal characteristics
•48% is genetic
• insecure attachment
• men lonelier than w on average


Friendships and gossip

- sharing neg attitudes about others promotes closeness and fship
• more so than positive information
- establishes in-group vs out-group boundaries
- may be more positive for males than females
• enhance individual bonding in make fships
• f more likely to view in-group gossiping as threatening to the fship



Contrast b/w fship initiation and enemyship initiation
- friends - grow together and occasionally click
- enemies - typically can't understand how it happened; sudden and mysterious
- hold power over target
- make people feel suspicious and anxious; neg about themselves
- have power to damage reputations through gossip and lies, or damage status and financial position