Lecture 1 - Human Relationships; Types, Structures, Functions And Processes Flashcards Preview

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Hal Kelley's Model of Dyadic Relationships

- P - person
- O - other
- bring personal attributes to relationships
- social, cultural and physical environment factors also affect relationship

1

Distinguish b/w proximal and distal causes of relationship events

Proximal feeling (e.g love, hate) may have a variety of distal causes (e.g. Prior betrayal, evolution)

2

What is a parasocial relationship?

Relationship with a TV characters

3

Distinguish between a communal and exchange relationships. Clark and Mills 1970s

Communal - based on shared need and commitment e.g. Family
Exchange - I.e. business partnerships - reliant on being mutually beneficial

4

Four models of social relationships - Fiske and Haslam

- communal sharing (needs based)
- authority ranking (power based)
- equality matching (exchange based)
- market pricing (worth-based)

5

Evolutionary approaches

- humans social animals
- need to find and keep mates, produce and parent offspring, compete for resources, maintain friendships, manage conflicts, and negotiate shifting power and status dynamics
- evolved psychological mechanisms help us achieve these tasks - needs and desires

6

Emotions at evolved psychological mechanisms

- Romantic love -> signals reward, motivates mating and pair bonding
- jealousy -> signals threat, motivates mate guarding
- guilt -> signals that we have damaged an important relationships, motivates repair
- shame -> signals we are unacceptable to others, motivate atonement

7

Attachment theory

- evolved drive with biological foundations (Bowlby, 1979)
- manifests in infant-c/g and adult romantic relationships (Hazan & Shaver, 1987)
- secure attachments are the source of our first powerful experiences of love, trust and joy. Disrupted or unpredictable bonds trigger intense negative emotions such as anxiety l, anger and sorrow

8

Social exchange theories

- economic models of relationships analyst rewards, costs, exchanges, comparison levels, short-term vs. long-term profits and costs, equity and inequity
- assume a 'rational' (purely cognitive) approach to relationships but note important role for feelings
- cheater detection mechanism - thoughts and feelings tell us when we are being treated fairly and when we are being disadvantaged (Cosmides and Tooby, 2000)

9

Social cognitive theories

- study of people's relationship-related beliefs, memories and judgements
- people develop schemas of relationship phenomena (e.g. Love, commitment)
- mismatches in schemas and expectations can cause relationship trouble

10

Role theories

- Relationship roles come from norms derived from society/culture
- role requirements may differ for men/women

11

Stage theories

- A developmental approach to relationships
- Stage theories describe "typical" patterns of relationship initiation, development, maintenance and dissolution
- problems can arise when partners are not in step with respect to relationship trajectory

12

Dialectical theory

- Sociological approach
- describes the process of managing tensions in relationships e.g connectedness (wanting togetherness) vs. autonomy (individual control) - most central