Week 6: L1: Sex And Sexuality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6: L1: Sex And Sexuality Deck (17)
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Sexuality of Men (1948) and Sexuality of Women (1953)

Challenged common misconceptions:
- prevalence of pre-marital and extra-marital sex (both m/f)
- frequency of masturbation w/o ill effects
- women's orgasm

1

Motives for sexual activity

- emotional: a communication of love and commitment
- physical: physical pleasure gained and physical attractiveness of potential partner
- pragmatic: wish to attain some goal (pregnancy or vengeance)
- insecurity: desire to boost one's self esteem

2

Attitudes towards sex

- Changed over generations (today fewer than 25% think premarital sex is wrong)
- however, attitude depends on relationship types: sex in committed and casual relationship
- men more permissive than women, especially toward casual, premarital sex
- men - tend to separate love and sex, women tend to link sex with love and commitment (holds across cultures and history)

3

Developmental sequence - DeLamater and MacCorquodale (1979)

- boys and girls tended to move from holding hands to hugging to kissing to fondling to sexual intercourse at about the same pace, beginning at age 14
- timing of first sex - boys 17, girls 18
- across cultures, same sequence tend to occur but age of first sex may vary

4

Sexual orientation - Laumann

- 2.8% m and 1.4% w self-classified as homosexual and bisexual
- 5.3% m and 3.5% w reported having sex with same-sex partner at least once since puberty
- 7.7% m and 7.5% w reported sexual desire for same-sec person
- 10.1% m and 8.6% w reported same-sex desires and experiences

5

Sexual orientation - Diamond (1993)

- 5-6% m and 2-3% w consider themselves exclusively homosexual
- sexual orientation continuum
• social pressure may push people in the middle toward heterosexuality
• but genes play a role too, people with strong same sex attraction probably cannot change their orientation

6

Genetics of homosexuality

- 52% for monozygotic twins, 22% for dizygotic, 11% for adoptive brothers
- similar stats for women
- sexual orientation in part a preference exercised by our genes

7

Attitudes towards homosexuality

Differ across cultures
- historical disapproval in US - Saad (2010) found 43% of adults believed "same-sex" relations morally wrong
- gay sex may be seen as a normal phase among young boys (e.g. Arab cultures)
- rarely reported in Asian cultures
- gay sex might be differently viewed in some societies than lesbian sex
-

8

Parents reactions to the disclosure

- described stressful, a disorientating situation, with parents reporting a wide variety of reactions
- suggested that frequently crying about a child's homosexuality, even 5 yrs after the 1st disclosure, is understandable
- rejection
• suicide, depression, hazardous substance/ drug use, unprotected sexual intercourse
- support
• reduces psychological stress and symptoms resulting from victimization experiencing by gay young adults, reduces chances of committing suicide

9

Homosexual activity

- gay men had most active lives
- lesbian engaged in the most touching, hugging and cuddling
- men quantity, women -> emotional connection across orientations

10

Similarities amount heterosexual, gay & lesbian relationships

- similar relationship maintenance behaviours and factors (e.g. Communication, assurance, positivity) that ensure relationship satisfaction
-

11

Differences among heterosexual, gay & lesbian relationships

- relative to hetero partners, g & l partners reported more autonomy, fewer barriers to leaving, and more frequent relationship dissolution (plus lesbian partners reported more intimacy, more equality)
- relative to gay partners, lesbian partners reported more; liking of partner, trust and equality
- lesbian partners reported greater relationship satisfaction, more constructive conflict-resolution styles than either gay male couples or hetero couples

12

No Sexual desire

Some have no sexual interest
- reasons include age, illness, no partner, ethics, religion
- 25% of single m/w - no. Sex in last 12 months, 9% of married couples, 86% of widowed m/w
- some may desire but don't have opportunity

13

Sociosexual orientation

- I.e. the degree to which individuals feel comfortable engaging in sex without love, closeness or commitment
- ppl w "restricted" sociosexual orientation willing to have sex only in the context of committed and affectionate relationship
- ppl w "unrestricted" sociosexual orientation do not seek closeness and commitment - tend to be dynamic, flirtatious, sociable and extroverted and think sex w/o love is ok
- men less restricted than women, across cultures

14

Infidelity

- Gay men 2x as likely for extradydic sex than other relationship combinations
- good genes hypothesis - dual mating strategy
• obtains security and commitment from one man and
• have taller, stronger and healthier children with another - maximizing her offspring's chance of survival

15

Sexual desire - gender differences

- men have higher sex drives
- young adult men experience episodes of sexual desire 37 times/week vs 9 for women
- in relationship 50% of men masturbate > 1/week, compared to 16% of women
- men are more common customers of pornography
- in Aus 23% of men had paid for sex at least once but w almost never do

16

Sexual satisfaction factors

1) number of partners - regardless I marital status, ppl committed to their partnership and who value monogamy more likely to be satisfied
2) frequency of sex important
3) self-determination theory - happiness flows from autonomy, competence and relatedness
4) motivations behind our sexual interaction is important - approach motivation: have sex to obtain important outcome; avoidance motivation: have sex to avoid unpleasant consequence or strategic
5) communication - positively correlates w satisfaction
6) physical similarity
Sexual satisfaction is related to relationship satisfaction regardless of marital status and sexual orientation