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2 components of attachment theory

Normative component
- explains typical features of attachment that apply to everyone, such as how and why attachment bonds form and remain relatively stable over time

Individual-difference component
- explains how and why people who have different attachment styles think, feel and behave in different social situations


Normative developmental factors

1) mother-infant synchrony
2) keep close
3) attachment development phases
- initial phase, infants show no preference 0-3m
- 2nd phase, infants become more selective 3-7m
- 3rd phase, infants actively seek out c/g for proximity maintenance, safe haven, secure base 7-36m
- 4th phase, move to psychological proximity or felt security


4 Adult attachment styles on the anxiety/secure-avoidant spectrums

Secure - low anx, low avoidant
Pre-occupied - high anx, low avoid
Dismissive - low anx, high avoid
Fearful - high anx, high avoidance


Lee's love typology.
3 primary styles
3 secondary styles

- clear and inflexible ideal image of physical form, develops feelings quickly, prefers rapid self-disclosure and escalation of intimacy

- does not have a fixed image and prefers not to commit, remaining distant, comfortable ending rships

- more mature and stable, common interests and affection over appearance, not needy and comfortable with slow dev of sex intimacy

- combination of Eros and Ludus. Intense love but doesn't want to commit

- pragmatic, combination of Ludus and storge.

- duty and selflessness


Assortative mating

When mates pairs are more similar than would be expected by chance. For example physical attractiveness is moderately strongly correlated across partners in romantic rships


Environmental risk model

Life history theory proposing that both the harshness and unpredictability of the local environment (partly) determine mating strategies in adulthood.


Self-expansion model

Aron and Aron, proposes that humans have a primary motivation to expand the self, and that individuals often achieve self-expansion through intimate rships in which the other becomes integrated into the self


Social structural model

Focuses on how culture (social roles and gender role socialization practices) produces gender differences, including those found in mate selection and intimate rships


Action-facilitating support

Support within rships intended to directly assist, including offering info and advice about how to manage the problem (info support), and providing resources and engaging in activities to help the individual manage the stressful event (tangible support)


Directional bias

Produced when an individual or sample systematically rate a target as either more positive or more negative compared to some benchmark


Embedded cognition

A research domain based on the proposition that bodily and perceptual processes and cognition work to influence one another within an integrated biological system


Error management theory

Based on evolutionary psychology, argues that perceptual and judge mental biases often have a functional basis linked to survival and reproductive success


Good management model

Postulating that instead of openly expressing neg thoughts and feelings, exercising good communication skills involves compromise, restraint, accommodation, and ignoring problems that resist being resolved


Honest communication principle

Postulates that couples should openly express their neg feelings as cognitions (in a dip fashion), deal with conflict directly, as never leave a problem unresolved


Inclusive fitness

Altruism can evolve by individuals promoting the survival an reproductive success of close relatives


Intimate terrorism

Refer to the kind of severe intimate violence used by men to intimidate and control their partners


Reflected appraisals

Judgements or evaluations of what one partner thinks the other thinks of them


Risk regulation model

Explains how people balance the goal of seeking closeness to a romantic partner against the goal of minimising the likelihood and pain of rejection. The central premise of the model is that confidence in a partner's positive regard and caring allows people to risk seeking dependence and connectedness



Refers to individual differences in the willingness to have sex in short-term vs long-term rships


Situational couple violence

Category of intimate violence which consists of less severe forms of aggression, with both genders being often being both victims and perpetrators


Tracking accuracy

The accuracy with which people's judgements of others track one or more benchmarks in a relative fashion. This is usually indexed using correlations.