Week 4: Emotions In Relationships Flashcards Preview

PSY350 > Week 4: Emotions In Relationships > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 4: Emotions In Relationships Deck (17)
Loading flashcards...
0

Where do emotions come from?

Mandler's (1970s) cognitive theory of emotion. To experience an emotion there must be:
- an event or stimulus in the world; and
- we must pay attention to that stimulus

1

Organized action sequences

Routine behaviors in pursuit of Higher Order Plans and goals
- we pay attention when out routines are interrupted
- interruptions may activate our emotions (trouble-shooting system)- they motivate us to take appropriate action

2

Primary appraisals

When we experience an interruption, we appraise it along two dimensions:
- valence - is it good/bad, helpful/harmful?
- relevance/importance - does it matter?

3

Berscheid (1983) application of Mandler's theory explain the cause of emotional experiences in close relationships

- drew on Kelly's interdependence theory (P and O)
• P and O each has their own connected chains (intra-chains) of organized action sequences and higher order plans
- P and O live lives on parallel tracks
- when P and O activities interconnect, inter-chains connection are established
- inter-chain connections determine the closeness of a couple's relationship via frequency, strength and diversity, longevity
- role of emotion? Close relationships are 'meshed', the more meshed, the higher the chance for interruptions
- well meshed with no interruptions may seem boring, or fights can be meshed (thus little emotion)

4

Emotional investment

- the more interchain connections b/w P and O, the greater is their emotional investment in the relationship
- doesn't have to be symmetrical
- relationships can be emotionally tranquil for one of two reasons:
• extremely well meshed (no interruptions)
• few interconnections - emotionally sterile

5

Irony of boredom

- emotionally tranquil relationship partners may not be aware of their degree of interdependence and emotional investment
- only after major interruption, when the interconnections are exploded, is intense an prolonged emotion experienced

6

How to stay happy?

- positive emotions are elicited by
• unexpected completion of OAS or HOP (e.g. Win lottery)
• removal of previously interruptive stimulus (e.g backyard blitz cleans backyard)
- if partner is credited for event, then love should be forthcoming

7

Berscheid's definition of romantic love:

- "The sudden realisation that another person is willing and able to help you fulfil your cherished hopes and plans" you've found someone you can mesh
- do new and interesting things together, make plans together that you need one another to help accomplish - create new opportunities to mesh
- engineer pleasant surprises for one another

8

Simpson's (1987) evidence for Berscheid's

- longitudinal study of American dating students found the factors that best predicted emotional distress after breakup were the same factors that indicated relationship closeness and emotional investment

9

Weakness of Berscheid's theory

- what determines the kind of emotion we will feel after an interruptive stimulus?
• we experience more than just 'good' or 'bad' feelings
- cognition determines the kind of emotion
• specifically, cognitive appraisals including casual attributions

10

Generating emotions

Step 1
- primary appraisals
- valence
- relevance
Step 2
- secondary appraisals (including attributions) determine the kind of emotion
• who caused it? Who is to blame?
• what can I do about it?
• was it intentional? Typical?
• was it fair?
• can I change it?

11

Jealousy: appraisals?

- always involves P, O and X - third party
- X represents threat to O
- who is to blame?
- but...who is in control?
- jealousy a mix of emotions, anger fear, sadness

12

Anger, hate and hurt

Anger: appraisals of unfairness and injustice, moderate to high power
Hate: appraisals of being diminished and low power
Hurt: key appraisals of unexpectedness, relational devaluation, rejection, low power, high effort, low understanding

13

Proximal effects on appraisals

- Mood - good or bad, colour interpretations of ambiguous events and behaviors
- Recent experiences (e.g. Watching TV; talking to friends)

14

Distal effects on appraisals

Schemas create emotional climates
- relationship happiness schema,
- attachment schemas
- emotion schemas from family of origin
E.g. Anger
- Typically involves two or more parties; one has committed an offence
- angered person feels hot and tense, appraises event as other-caused, unfair, controllable, intentional, deserving of punishment, feels urge to retaliate
- angered person responds with protest behaviors, offender apology, denial or retaliation may follow.
* problems when partners hold different emotion scripts

15

What follows emotion?

Different emotions elicit different kinds of motivations and behaviors
- sadness - motivates withdrawal
- anxiety - motives comfort-seeking
- anger - motivates confrontation
- love - motivates physical closeness

16

The interactional cycle

- P's emotional response (e.g. Angry protest after an O-caused interruption appraised as negative, important, unfair, uncontrollable) becomes an interruption for O
- O appraises P's behavior, experiences emotion and responds emotionally
- O's behavior becomes stimulus