Week 9: L1: Family (kin) Rships Flashcards Preview

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Psychological approach to family

- family refers to a network of communal rships characterized by degrees of interdependence
- in communal rships, people expect to have their needs met by others, and to meet others needs
- expectations of kin tend to diminish with degree of blood-relatedness


Family rules

- parents: to nurture and protect offspring
- offspring: to love, trust and respect parents
- siblings: to look out for each other


Parental rejection

- parents should treat their family equally
- Brody (1998) - 65% of 189 m/f reported family favoritism, 24% reported dis-favoritism
• dis-favoritism - related to lower family cohesion, higher family disengagement/conflict
- dis-favorited: experience more frequent and intense shame and fear


Scape-goating (Dare, 1993)

- some offspring are risky investments or jeopardize own or siblings reproductive success
- tendency to invest more in genetically related children than non-genetically related children


Birth order (Sulloway, 1996)

- First-born: Tend to be conservative, the "kin-keepers"
- last-born: relatively indulged
- middle borns: more likely to rebel and perceive dis-favoritism than first or last borns


Sex of offspring

- historical preference for make children
- in current western cultures may be more proximal factors I.e. how many male/female children already in family.


Favouritism stats and reasons (Fitness, 2004)

- 70% reported a family fav
• 48% self, 35% bro, 17% sis
- 58% 1st born claim fav
- 62% last born claim fav
- 32% mid claim fav
- birth order
- sex (ESP if only b/g
- "Goodness"
- similarity to parent
- illness/disability / specialness


Black sheep stats and reasons

- 21% self
- 13% bro
- 16% sis
- 25% unc
- 25% inlaw, cousin, dist relative
- 38% middle borns
- 7% 1st born
- 18% last borns
- Self-black sheep = 100% cited differences
- sister black sheep = 72% cited difference
- 25% = rejection of family, 3% = badness


Black sheep - males

- brothers: 71% badness, 29% difference
- uncles: 70% badness, 20% strangeness, 10% difference


Role of difference and badness for black sheep

- difference: important, proximal cue to genetic unrelatedness
- badness: diminish own and siblings reproductive success; emphasis throughout accounts on the notion of family as an entity towards which members owe allegiance


Treatment of black sheep

Rejecting behaviors
- exclusion or ostracism of black sheep (42%)
- cold, distant, chilly polite (16%)
- criticism, nagging, mean behaviour (33%)
- negative consequences throughout life


Buffering effects of kin? For black sheep

- neg corr found b/w the amount of contact with extended family when growing up and the likelihood of reporting a favorite (r=.29) or black sheep (r=.47) anywhere in family
- underscores the importance of extended kin relationships and friendship networks for raising children and building happy families


Growing happy families

- importance of emotional expressiveness: communicates needs, enables others to meet those needs
Three types of neg emotional expression
- hard (power-asserting): elicits defensiveness
- soft (vulnerable): caring and empathy
- flat (not interested)


Emotional climates in families

- set by most powerful members of family
- emotional contagion: emotions pervade families
- may be highly dysfunctional (climates of anger, hostility, anxiety, depression)
- depressed/angry parents: negative effects for children


Emotional socialization

- children are also taught about emotions in the family
- cultural aspects - individualistic cultures encourage expression of power-related emotions; collectivist cultures encourage expression of harmony-related emotions
- gender differences mirror this distinction


Adaptive family functioning

- involves the frequent generation and expression positive emotions, and effective management of neg emotions
- involves emotion coaching of children by emotionally competent parents
- in an atmosphere of caring, respect and admiration for one another