Flashcards in Western-Blood Tests Deck (28):
Prostate Specific Antigen Test
This test measures the level of PSA in the blood. Reported in nanograms per milliliter blood (ng/ml).
Less than 4 ng/ml is normal. Greater than 10 ng/ml is high.
High levels indicate: prostate cancer, prostatitis, recent ejaculation, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
This test is used as a tumor marker for benign & malignant conditions.
High levels: colon & rectum, pancreas, stomach, breast, lung cancer
* Chemotherapy & radiation therapy can cause a temporary rise in CEA.
Alanine Aminotransferase Test
(ALT) formally (SGPT)
High levels: jaundice, LV disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis, infectious mononucleosis
Apartate Aminotransferase Test
(AST) formally (SGOT)
High levels: heart attack, infectious mononucleosis, strenuous exercise, LV disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis
High levels: bone disease, placenta, intestine
High levels of Alkaline Phosphatase & GGT:
LV disease, alcohol ingestion or Alcoholic Liver Disease, obstruction of the bile ducts (similar to gall stones)
High levels: increased destruction of RBCs (Hemolytic Anemia), LV disease, GB disease
Creatinine is a waste product formed through body's metabolism of protein. Normal range: 0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL of blood. Levels greater than 1.2 mg/dL can indicate KD disease.
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Another waste product formed through body's metabolism of protein. Normal range: 7 - 20 mg/dL.
Levels greater than 20 mg/dL can indicate KD disease.
Complete blood Count
Tests RBCs, WBCs & platelets.
Normal WBC count: 5,000 to 10,000. Increase suggests inflammation or infection.
Normal RBC count (men): 5 - 6 million/microliter
(women): 3.6 - 5.6 million/microliter. Decrease suggests inflammation.
(part of CBC) Packed cell volume used to determine anemia or polycythemia.
(part of CBC) Transports oxygen & CO2, used to determine anemia or polycythemia.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
Blood sample in tube to determine how fast RBC settle to the bottom in 1 hr. Normal rate: 20 mm/hr.
Inflammation makes RBCs clump together & fall faster, increasing the rate. May indicate arthritis, but should not be used alone for diagnosis.
Antibody found in unusually large amounts of PT w/ RA. The higher the concentration, the more severe the RA.
RF can take months to show up. Only 85% of PT w/ RA will have RF.
Total blood cholesterol levels
Less than 200 mg/dL: desirable
200 to 239 mg/dL: borderline to high
240 mg/dL or higher: high
High density lipoprotein or LDL (good cholesterol)
Less than 40 mg/dL: low HDL (increased risk of heart attack)
Greater than 60 mg/dL: High HDL (reduced risk of heart attack)
Low-density lipoprotein or LDL (bad cholesterol)
Below 100 mg/dL: desirable
130 to 159 mg/dL: borderline to high
160 mg/dL or greater: high
Total cholesterol to HDL ratio
(calculated by dividing total cholesterol level by HDL level)
Below 5 to 1: desirable
3.5 to 1: optimal
(another type of fat)
Less than 200 mg/dL: normal
200 - 400 mg/dL: borderline to high
New guidelines state PT w/ borderline elevated levels should have treatment.
Elisa Test (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Assay)
This test is used to screen:
Lyme Disease, EBV, hepatitis, HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus,
*if positive, follow up w/ Western Blot Test.
A common test in medical centers for transplants. It is a genetic marker for some forms of arthritis. Ex. Ankylosing Spondylitis & Reiter's Syndrome.
Decreased: hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis
Detection of Cystic Fibrosis
Specific gravity of 1.023 or more indicates normal urine concentration ability.
Low specific gravity: sickle cell anemia, diabetes insipidus.