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Flashcards in Western-Blood Tests Deck (28):
1

Prostate Specific Antigen Test
(PSA)

This test measures the level of PSA in the blood. Reported in nanograms per milliliter blood (ng/ml).

Less than 4 ng/ml is normal. Greater than 10 ng/ml is high.

High levels indicate: prostate cancer, prostatitis, recent ejaculation, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

2

Carcinoembryonic Antigen
(CEA)

This test is used as a tumor marker for benign & malignant conditions.

High levels: colon & rectum, pancreas, stomach, breast, lung cancer

* Chemotherapy & radiation therapy can cause a temporary rise in CEA.

3

Alanine Aminotransferase Test
(ALT) formally (SGPT)

High levels: jaundice, LV disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis, infectious mononucleosis

4

Apartate Aminotransferase Test
(AST) formally (SGOT)

High levels: heart attack, infectious mononucleosis, strenuous exercise, LV disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis

5

Alkaline Phosphate

High levels: bone disease, placenta, intestine

6

Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase

High levels of Alkaline Phosphatase & GGT:
LV disease, alcohol ingestion or Alcoholic Liver Disease, obstruction of the bile ducts (similar to gall stones)

7

Bilirubin Test

High levels: increased destruction of RBCs (Hemolytic Anemia), LV disease, GB disease

8

Serum Creatinine

Creatinine is a waste product formed through body's metabolism of protein. Normal range: 0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL of blood. Levels greater than 1.2 mg/dL can indicate KD disease.

9

Blood Urea Nitrogen
(BUN)

Another waste product formed through body's metabolism of protein. Normal range: 7 - 20 mg/dL.
Levels greater than 20 mg/dL can indicate KD disease.

10

Complete blood Count
(CBC)

Tests RBCs, WBCs & platelets.

Normal WBC count: 5,000 to 10,000. Increase suggests inflammation or infection.

Normal RBC count (men): 5 - 6 million/microliter
(women): 3.6 - 5.6 million/microliter. Decrease suggests inflammation.

11

Hematocrit

(part of CBC) Packed cell volume used to determine anemia or polycythemia.

12

Hemoglobin

(part of CBC) Transports oxygen & CO2, used to determine anemia or polycythemia.

13

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
(ESR)

Blood sample in tube to determine how fast RBC settle to the bottom in 1 hr. Normal rate: 20 mm/hr.

Inflammation makes RBCs clump together & fall faster, increasing the rate. May indicate arthritis, but should not be used alone for diagnosis.

14

Rheumatoid Factor
(RF)

Antibody found in unusually large amounts of PT w/ RA. The higher the concentration, the more severe the RA.

RF can take months to show up. Only 85% of PT w/ RA will have RF.

15

Total blood cholesterol levels

Less than 200 mg/dL: desirable
200 to 239 mg/dL: borderline to high
240 mg/dL or higher: high

16

High density lipoprotein or LDL (good cholesterol)

Less than 40 mg/dL: low HDL (increased risk of heart attack)
Greater than 60 mg/dL: High HDL (reduced risk of heart attack)

17

Low-density lipoprotein or LDL (bad cholesterol)

Below 100 mg/dL: desirable
130 to 159 mg/dL: borderline to high
160 mg/dL or greater: high

18

Total cholesterol to HDL ratio
(calculated by dividing total cholesterol level by HDL level)

Below 5 to 1: desirable
3.5 to 1: optimal

19

Triglycerides
(another type of fat)

Less than 200 mg/dL: normal
200 - 400 mg/dL: borderline to high
New guidelines state PT w/ borderline elevated levels should have treatment.

20

Elisa Test (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Assay)

This test is used to screen:
Lyme Disease, EBV, hepatitis, HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus,
*if positive, follow up w/ Western Blot Test.

21

HLA Typing

A common test in medical centers for transplants. It is a genetic marker for some forms of arthritis. Ex. Ankylosing Spondylitis & Reiter's Syndrome.

22

Thyroid-stimulating hormone
(TSH)

Increased: hypothyroidism
Decreased: hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis

23

Sweat Test

Detection of Cystic Fibrosis

24

HCG

Pregnancy test

25

Dick Test

Scarlet Fever

26

Schick Test

Diphtheria

27

Specific Gravity

Specific gravity of 1.023 or more indicates normal urine concentration ability.

Low specific gravity: sickle cell anemia, diabetes insipidus.

28

Antinuclear Antibody
(ANA)

This tests for Lupus & certain rheumatic diseases.

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