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Flashcards in Wk 11 - Learning Deck (19):

Pavlov's classical conditioning is... (x2)

Pairing unconditioned stimulus to a neutral one until the presentation of the neutral (now conditioned) stimulus alone is sufficient to elicit the response
Eg bell with dog food = salivation as a conditioned response to bell


Thorndike's instrumental/operant conditioning... (x2)

Animal makes response - satisfying response makes repetition more likely, unsatisfactory = gradual disappearance of response
Eg cats get gradually better at escaping the box


BF Skinner's approach to instrumental/operant conditioning... (x4)

Rewarding of act/near approximation can be used to shape behaviour
We are purely product of punishment/reward
Mind/other subjective phenomena don't exist/can't be studied - free will as fiction
Eg hungry pigeons learn to peck to produce food, as gambling relates to reinforcement schedule


Positive reinforcement is...

Behaviour/response followed by rewarding stimulus = increases in the behaviour


Negative reinforcement/escape is...

Behaviour/response followed by removal of aversive stimulus = increase in the behaviour


Positive punishment...

Behaviour/response is followed by aversive stimulus (e.g. shock, noise) = decrease in behaviour


Negative punishment...

Behaviour/response is followed by the removal of a positive stimulus (e.g. toy) = decrease in behaviour


Extinction is...

When a previously reinforced behaviour is no longer effective, it fades out


A large proportion of human learning occurs through... (x2)

Observational and social learning, not
Classical conditioning, punishment or reward


Vygotsky's General Law of Cultural Development... (x4)

Every function in development appears both at the
Social level - interpsychologically, and
Individual level - intrapsychologically
All higher functions originate as relations


Zone of proximal development... (x2)

Gap between potential development and that achieved through independent problem-solving determined by peer/adult interaction
Presupposes a specific social nature


Meltzoff demonstrated kids understanding/imitation of 'intended actions' through... (x3)

Modelling pulling apart of dumbbell = imitation of the behaviour, but
Modelling inability to pull apart dumbbell = same ability to pull apart as those who'd seen it modelled
Doesn't fit with strict behaviourist account - child is reading intent


Gergely et al. demonstrated rational imitation through... (x2)

If experimenter turned light light on with head because hands were occupied with holding blanket, kids only imitated if their hands were similarly occupied
Otherwise just used hands - more rational action


Rational imitation is that... (x2)

Give kids a reason for your behaviour, they'll make judgment based on that reason
Otherwise they'll imitate, assuming that there is reason


Horner and Whiten demonstrated the importance of imitation in human development by...
Finding that... (x2)

Modelling complex behaviour sequence, to kids and chimps, for getting reward out of opaque box
Only humans will repeat sequence when box is see-through
Chimps are functional, use the short-cut - kids are focussed on repeating behaviour


Overimitation is...
And has been found to be...
Therefor is likely motivated by...

That kids will copy absolutely everything you do, e.g. pointless steps in getting box open
Universal - even indigenous cultures that learn through observation/trial and error over direct instruction do it
Need to fit in with culture, rather than as learning - social motivation separates humans from other animals


Culture is...
And may exist in other animals, based on evidence that...

Socially transmitted customary/habitual behaviours that are absent in another community, where ecological/genetic diffs alone don't explain such variation

Different chimp groups use different tools/same ones for different purpose


The relationship between actions, outcomes and culture... (x4)

Conformity - need to be like others is cultural
Behaviours performed even in knowledge they lack function
Kids imitate intentionally/rationally from early age
Human fixation on processes, not ends


According to Bandura and Walters... (x3)

Traditional learning theory grossly incomplete
Learn vicariously over through personal experience
Observe consequences, may later imitate the behaviour