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Flashcards in Wk 2 Deck (31):
1

8 Stages of Chronological Development

Prenatal
Infancy – birth-2yo
Early childhood – 2-5yo
Middle childhood – 6-11yo
Adolescence – 12-19yo
Early adult – 20-39yo
Middle adult – 40-69yo
Late adult – 70+

2

Five Processes of Development

Biological
Cognitive
Emotional
Social
Moral

3

Normative change

That undergone by all/most

4

Qualitative change... (x2 + 2 eg)

New capacity, not a bit more of the same;
Often in stages that overcome earlier limitations – becoming a ‘new person’
Biol example – pubertal transformation from child to woman
Psych example – gaining self-awareness

5

Quantitative change... (+2 eg)

Increase in existing capacity
Biol example – growing taller from age 4-10
Psych example – increasing IQ from age 4-10

6

Progressive development is...

Possible, but not guaranteed/automatic
Complexity and coping power gains possible in old age

7

The def of normative social clock is...
and it is...
Examples include expectations regarding...

Implicit beliefs about cultural expectations of age-appropriate behaviour – content and plans to adhere/violate
Culture- and era-specific, not genuine human capacity, not individual differences - society expects development
Too old to enter high school, live with parents, first marriage/child, remain working

8

The three scientific goals of lifespan development research are...

Description
Explanation
Optimisation

9

Three patterns of developmental variables are...

Regularities - constancy or change
Differences - contrasts across geography, history, culture, socioeconomics
Plasticity - flexibility of patterns of stability or change

10

Four core assumptions of the lifespan approach are...

Psych development is lifelong process
Plasticity is a lifelong potential
Culture increasingly important development as age increases – after childhood, cultural opportunities dictate directions
Scientific, objective study unlocks new insights

11

Four qualities of psychological development are...

Permanent
Qualitative
Generalisable, normative
Progressively enhancing individual’s ability to cope with widening range of situations

12

Age norms are...

Average ages at which a stage of development is reached

13

Three pre-theoretical models of development are...

Environmental-mechanistic model
Organic-maturational model
Dialectical model

14

The environmental-mechanistic model of development is... (x3)

A pre-theoretical model that:
Emphasises the role of the external environment in guiding developmental change
Leads to theories that concentrate on dissecting mature behaviour into simpler parts

15

The organic-maturational model of development is... (x4)

A pre-theoretical model that:
Equates development to natural physical growth, Eg acorn/oak
Relies on genetic programs, biol and neurocognitive processes as major influence
Doesn’t expect earlier attributes to be related to later ones

16

The dialectical model of development is... (x3)

A pre-theoretical model that:
Sees development as a result of confrontations between two opposing forces that are in continual flux
Change as the natural state

17

Development is... (x6)

Patterns of change that begin at conception, continue through lifespan
Most involves growth, but also decline of age/dying
Multi-dimensional/directional/disciplinary
Contextual
Involves growth, maintenance, regulation
Mix of biology, culture, individual

18

Four key theories/theorists in lifespan development

Psychoanalytic - Freud, Erikson (est. lifespan focus)
Cognitive - Piaget, Baltes
Socio-cultural - Vygotsky
Social learning - Bandura

19

Paul Baltes saw individuals as result of change from 3 types of influence...

Normative age-graded - similar for all in age-group/culture
Normative history-graded - similar for generation
Non-normative life events - unusual events with high impact

20

Baltes 3 Goals of Human Development involved...

Overlapping spheres of growth, maintenance, regulation of loss

21

Naturalistic observation... (x2)

`More unpredictable, more real-world meaning
Possible to have unbiased sample

22

Observation in lab... (x3)

Increased confidence that response due to IV
Harder to generalise to real-world meaning
Sample may be automatically biased

23

Descriptive research is...

The observation and recording of behaviour

24

Correlational research... (x2)

Describes strength of relationship between 2 or more events/characteristics
One of most common in dev psych

25

Type 1 error is... (x2)

Claiming a significant result that isn't there
If p<.05, 5/100 results will be Type 1 error

26

The Bonferoni correction...

Sets p<.0025 - only 0.25/100 tests will be Type 1 error

27

Cross-sectional design... (x3)

Measures age differences
Compares age-groups at same time point, with different individuals at each age
Eg IQ tests to people aged 5, 10, 15 in 2010

28

Longitudinal studies... (x2)

Individual's age changes
Can provide different results to cross-sectional

29

Time-lag studies...

Cohort contrasts at same age
Eg Measures of women aged 20 in 1950, 1970, 1990

30

Sequential designs...

Combine X-S, L and T-L measurements (in a table)
Samples of different ages from same population across time
Overlap identifies confounds and biases

31

Cohort effects are....
And mostly an issue for which research design?

Effects of being born around the same time, thus exposed to similar life experiences
Cross-sectional