Flashcards in Wk 7 - Cognitive Dev 2 Deck (18):
Piaget's Concrete Operational Period...(x5)
7 to 11 yo
Mental operations applied to concrete events
Mastery of conservation
Increasing ability to keep multiple possibilities in mind
Concrete operation thought...
Allows logical operations with concrete objects and events, as long as there’s only two dimensions of a problem to consider
The ability to group things in categories, develops as move into concrete operational
Piaget's Formal Operational Period... (x3)
11 yrs through adulthood
Mental operations applied to abstract ideas
Logical, systematic thinking
Three key characteristics of formal operational thought...
Which may not be shown across all problems, even by...
Can be about abstract objects/events
Considers all logical relations in problem - more than 2 dimensions
Capacity for future-oriented thinking
Deductive reasoning is... (x4)
Form of reasoning that moves from general premises, to a specific instance of that premise, followed by a conclusion.
If premises are true, conclusion must logically follow
Requires formal education
Around 11 years of age
Logical syllogism is...
Logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true
Inductive reasoning is... (x4)
Reasoning from a specific observation to a general rule
Ability to understand novel concepts and logical relationships
Piaget suggests emergence during concrete operational stage, but establishment under formal, around 11
Argued by others to emerge as young as 8 mo
Scientific thinking relates to inductive reasoning, as it involves...(x2)
Discovering explanations for a set of facts by estimating the weight of evidence in favour of a hypothesis that asserts something about the entire set of facts
Creates a structured whole that takes account of all evidence
Cattrell-Horn theory of intelligence...
That it's made up of perhaps 100 different abilities working together
Cattrell-Horn's Fluid Intelligence... (x4)
Drive the individual’s ability to: think and act quickly; solve novel problems; and encode short-term memories, reasoning, abstract thinking
Grounded in physiological efficiency, independent of education and acculturation
Eg inductive reasoning, such as in the letter series test
Decreases with age
Cattrell-Horn's Crystallised Intelligence... (x5)
Stems from learning and acculturation
Reflected in: tests of knowledge; general information, use of language and a wide variety of acquired skills
Personality factores, motivation, educational/cultural opportunities are central
Only indirectly dependent on the physiological influences
Increases slowly with age
Four possible problem-solving strategies...
Problem-focused action - Obtain more info
Cognitive problem analysis - Figure it out on own
Passive-dependent behaviour - Ask someone else to solve
Avoidant thinking/denial - Blame another for problem creation
Training cognitive skills in the elderly has shown that...
Results showed that the training only improved that specific area
Beyond general intelligence, we need to consider... (x2)
Encapsulation: info processing and fluid thinking that becomes dedicated to specific knowledge systems
Expertise: Existing knowledge is refined and broadened, can be applied in flexible/open-ended ways to ill-defined/multifaceted real-life situations – often seems automatic
Research on cognitive fluctuations in young/older people has shown that... (x2)
Despite lower average performance, elders maintain stabler day-to-day performance
Possibly advantageous in many vocational/voluntary/leisure settings through positively contributing to their productivity
Post-formal thought is... (x5)
Flexible, open, adaptive, individualistic, reliant on intuition as well as logic
Able to deal with uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection, compromise
Often stimulated by experiences that open up looking at things in unaccustomed ways
Maybe late adolescence/early adulthood, but not necessarily by 40
Not polarised, as formal is - multiple possible solutions