Flashcards in Wk 4 - Media and Games Deck (26):
Watching TV is linked to... (x6)
Delayed language acquisition - impacts for TOM/imaginative and pretend play
Poor school performance
Commercialisation of children
American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children be exposed to how much TV?
Screen attention time of infants... (x2)
Increases from 11% at 6mo, to 39% at 3 yo
12-15 mo spend 48-74% of time looking at shows intended for their age-group
Barr and Hayne conducted to experiments to establish whether infants process information from screen...
12, 15, 18 mo learned puppet-imitation task when seen modelled in RL or TV, or without instruction - best performance after live actor
15 mo tasked with putting ball in jar, affixing handle to make rattle - can't be done spontaneously, some learning from video, better live
Social and observational learning theory holds that media...
Can add to development if providing new info or stimulates learning
Eg observing adult doing something useful
Cultivation theory holds that media...
Content affect viewer's beliefs about the world, consequently altering behaviour
Eg watching Blinky Bill could encourage prosocial behaviour
Use and motivation theory holds that the impacts of media...
Depends on uses to which media are put, motivations (learning, entertainment) and individual abilities/dispositions of use
ie energetic/focussed characteristics of child affect media impact
Displacement theory holds that media... (x2)
Displaces important development activities
More relevant to teens who replace e.g. school work, socialising
Hofferth studied the effects of media by...
Finding that... (x2)
Parents and 6-12 yo kept diary of problem behaviours/achievements
More computer and TV = less sleep/reading (displacement), no effect for problem behaviours
For girls, computer use correlated with reading and problem-solving achievement
DeLoace et al. looked at effectiveness of video learning in study involving...
Which found that... (x2)
Comparing effects of parental teaching, video with interaction, without, and control with no teaching
50% correct rate in parent condition, 38% with interaction, 30% in others
Parental interaction is key - more rewarding/engaging, modelling, situational learning = better recall
Impacts of kids programs being surrounded by adverts for program related mercy... (x2)
Argument that young can't tell ad from program - groomed for life of consumerism
Marketing to children is explicit brand-loyalty-building strategy
Kids and marketing/consuming... (x3
During nursery school yrs, kids request average of 25 products a day, can recognise 200 logos by primary school
6-12 yo spend more time shopping than reading, attending youth groups, playing outdoors or conversing (displacement theory)
US children’s spending – 15 year mushroom to US$30 billion, plus influence another $600 billion worth of parental purchases
Characteristics of product-based programs... (x5)
Few main characters
Gender stereotyped characters
Impacts of product-based TV shows...
Combo of thematically related toys and TV show = inhibited creative imagination + stimulated imitative imagination
Short-term effects of TV on aggression are due to... (x3)
Priming processes - seeing it brings violence to mind
Excitation processes - increased arousal makes inhibition of aggression more difficult
Immediate imitation of specific behaviours
Long-term effects of TV on aggression are due to... (x3)
Schemas about a hostile world - the kinds of attributions made about another's intent
Scripts for problem-solving focus on aggression - behaviour sequences become more accessible
Normative beliefs that aggression is acceptable - rules against which scripts are assessed before use
Huesman's longitudinal study of TV and aggression found that...
TV habits of first-graders predicted childhood aggression
More aggressive children watched more TV, preferred more violent shows, identified with violent characters, perceived TV violence as more life-like
15-yr follow-up found correlation of exposure to later aggression, and very serious acts e.g. spousal abuse, assault
The majority of correlational studies of TV and aggression have found that...
Children who watch more media violence daily behave more aggressively daily
The effects of gaming were explored in a study involving...
Which found that... (x2)
Giving playstation and 3 games to experimental condition consisting of 6-9 yo boys
4 months later tested more poorly on reading/writing (displacement)
Had worse learning/behaviour reports from teachers
Barlett et al. examined impacts of ultra violence/blood in games in study involving...
Which found that... (x4)
Uni students played Mortal Combat with max, med,low, no blood
No differences in Trait Aggression
Increased State Hostility pre- to post- play for max/med blood conditions
Only max condition showed significant physiol arousal increase
Blood groups more likely to use weapons
Similarity identification is...
When an observer identifies with a character due to sharing salient characteristics
Wishful identification is...
An observers desire to emulate a fictional character either in general or specific terms
As role model for future actions/identity formation, or through imitation of particular behaviours/situations
The role of wishful identification in aggression was demonstrated in a study involving...
112 boys played game for 20 minutes, four conditions varying violence and fantasy/realism
Then able to blast losing competitor with potentially damaging noise levels
Highes aggression after playing violent game and identifying with character - especially in the realistic/violent condition
A process whereby people disengage moral self-sanctions, relieving their guilt over aggressive actions
Effects of VVG on dehumanisation were shown in a study involving...
Which found that...
Compared ingroup/outgroup behaviour following violent/neutral/prosocial game
Ingroup was equally liked/humanised after all games, but big outgroup drops after violent games
Because of tendency to dehumanise others, VVG increases potential to harm outgroup