Flashcards in Wk 6 - Cognitive Dev 1 Deck (23):
The Piagetian concept of schemes... (x3)
Actions or mental representations that organise knowledge
Develop as child starts to construct an understanding of the world
Argued that they're present from birth, but nature changes with age
Piagetian concept of Assimilation is...
Making sense of something using existing schemes
Piagetian concept of Accommodation is...
Changing a scheme to account for new information
Piagetian concept of Organisation is... (x2)
Integrating isolated behaviours into higher-order system
Eg schemes for hammer and screwdriver get organised under 'tools'
Piagetian concept of Equilibrium...
Growth achieved through effort to reach this by resolving disequilibrium - cognitive conflict due to constant counterexamples of schemes
Substage 1 of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yo) - Simple reflexes (x2)
Coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors; eg rooting, sucking, grasping
Substage 2 of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yo) - First habits and primary circular reactions (x3)
Coordination of sensation with – habits (reflexes) and primary circular reactions (reproduction of event that initially occurred by chance)
Eg suck thumb by accident, then accommodate action by sucking thumb differently to a nip
Substage 3 of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yo) - Secondary circular reactions (x4)
More object oriented, moving beyond self
Repeat actions that bring interest/pleasure
Eg cooing to make a person stay near, and again when they leave
Substage 4 of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yo) - Coordination of secondary circular reactions (x3)
Coordination of vision and touch – hand/eye; coordination of schemes and intentionality;
Eg using stick to bring toy closer
Substage 5 of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yo) - Tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity (x4)
Intrigued by object properties/ways to manipulate objects;
Experimentation with new behaviors;
Eg blocks can fall/hit/spin
Substage 6 of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yo) - Internalisation of schemes
Develop ability to use primitive symbols and form mental representations
Eg infant sees tantrum, throws its first one the next day
According to Piaget, neonatal imitation isn't possible for... (x2)
Which is challenged by... (x2)
Infants under 8-12 months
Lack perceptual-cognitive ability, esp for facial imitation
Imitating modelled tongue/lip protrusion, mouth opening, finger movement at 12-21 days old
But meta-analysis casts doubt on this...
Object permanence is...
And supposedly develops through Piagets Sensorimotory Substages... (x3)
Understanding that an out-of-sight object still exists
1. Babies learn the body can move and work
2. Babies notice objects and start following their movement
3. Babies will reach for a partially hidden object
Baillargeon and DeVos showed that object permanence...
May develop as young as 4mo - 4-8 months earlier than Piaget
Habituated infants to object moving behind two obstacles, comes out the other side,
then object doesn't reappear between the two objects - infant recovers interest
Meltzoff is questioning the value of looking-time studies based on...
Whether it matters if they don't act on what they are aware of
Previous tasks only asses infants perceptual expectations, not their knowledge – what if infants don’t act on their perceptions
Piaget's Sensorimotor period is... (x3)
From birth to 2 yo
Coordination of sensory input and motor responses
Development of object permanence
Piaget's Preoperational Period is... (x2)
From 2 to 7 yo
Development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, cent ration, egocentrism
The Symbolic Function Substage of Piaget's Preoperational Period is...
2 -4 yo
Draws representations, uses language and pretend
Drawing is usually intended as symbol of something - Piaget says the capacity to understand that something stands for something else is key in this period
Egocentrism, as seen in Piaget's Preoperational Period, is... (x2)
Believe that everyone can see what they can see
Eg Piagets 3 mountains task: telling researcher that they can see the same things on their side of the mountain as what the child can see. Perspective-taking comes later...
Heteronymous morality is... (x2)
Children believe that rules have own innate authority – prime motivation in this stage is fear of punishment
Rules are not understood as social construct
Autonomous morality is... (x2)
Understanding (around age 10) that rules are made up by people, for people
Motivated by cooperation, and tries to consider others’ needs/wants/feelings
A focus of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
Leads to notion of Conservation