Flashcards in Wk 12 - Child-rearing Deck (17):
The Flynn effect is... (x2)
That IQ is increasing cross-culturally
Argues it's legitimate effect due to exposure to broader/more detailed info - impacts of modernisation
Aligning traditional culture with activities, institutions, tools of industrialised nations
Research comparing the effects on IQ-related tasks of modernisation at various stages shows... (x2)
Effects may be due to... (x2)
Less modernised communities scored lower
Including in self-managed play
Schooling - introduction of asking questions you already know the answer to = changed reactions
Play - perhaps more time to engage in modern communities
Family/community roles in child-rearing differ dramatically due to, eg... (x4)
Infant mortality rates
Availability of siblings
Opps to engage with wider community
Cultural norms for engaging in groups/pairs
LeVine's 3-level hierarchy of child-rearing priorities...
Physical survival/health in communities with high infant mortality
Preparing children for economic self-maintenance
If 1 and 2 met, can maximise other cultural values
Cultural examples of LeVine's 3-level hierarchy of need...
Japan - declines in infant mortality 1950-75 = 'successful' children
Africa - infant death, subsistence difficulties
US - low mortality, children don't contribute to family income, independence in old age
Local child-rearing strategies are...
Cultural compromise formulas that provide parents with solutions that have worked historically
Cultural differences in infant-caregiver attachment...
Commonly presented as innate, but is culturally determined
Western assumption of sensitive mother as primary care-giver over father/community care
Western goal of independence/self-maximisation over interdependence/decency
Culture impacts on infant-caregiver attachment through e.g. ... (x3)
Health/economic conditions of community
Cultural goals of infant care
Cultural arrangements of family life
Independent and interdependent cultures may develop in response to...
Large, anonymous,urban,commercial communities, or
Small face-to-face, subsistence economies = value on tradition
The sensitivity hypothesis...
And cultural differences in... (x2)
Ainsworth - that mothers sensitive responses are key to in/secure attachment
Independent communities show sensitivity thru responsiveness
Interdependent show via anticipation
Anecdotal evidence that consequences of poor infant attachment are long-term is found in...
Brazil - poor, high infant mortality, disease/malnutrition
Maternal detachment until clear child will survive, then strong attachment develops
Sibling caregiving differences... (x3)
And family structure changes dramatically upon introduction of...
5-10 yo are caregivers in many communities
US children spend 70% of time alone/with one other
Marquesan kids are in groups of 3-6 75% of time, and 7-10 18%
Formal schooling - child-care and learning opps
Face-to-face with caregiver? (x3)
Unusual in many communities where infants participate in wider community
Child oriented away from self, multiple conversations at same time
Different development to children who must sit, wait
Extended families influence development through... (x2)
Opportunities for learning
Different if grouped with same-age peers (modern effect of formal schooling) than surrounded by kids of different maturity/abilities
Whether you learn best in groups of same- or different-age peers is likely...
Not that either Vygotsky's importance of elders, or Piaget's priority of same-age, is universally correct