Wk 10 - Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 10 - Language Deck (16):

Communication is...(X2)

Just info transfer
Animals can do it


Language requires... (x3)

Understanding of grammar and symbol use
Ability to represent real-world situations, and
Articulate new concepts



Neurological control of movements to create sounds


Learning/nurture theories of language acquisition involve... (x3)

Reinforcement - rewards for making particular sounds = do it more
Incomplete account - doesn't explain complexity/rapidity of acquisition


Effects of total isolation on Genie... (x4)

Despite alert, curious, eager for contact, and
Cognitive capacity to learn language
Was able to learn basic communication only
Evidence for nativist approach to acquisition


Morphological rules for language are...

Grammatical function words and endings like -s, -ing, -ed


The critical period hypothesis of language hold that... (x3)

Acquisition must occur within sensitive/critical period or it...
Strong form - won't be acquired at all
Weak form - will be disordered


The nativist approach to language acquisition holds that... (x3)

Humans are specially adapted/born ready for this special learning
Chomsky's LAD - disordered input is processed through it to deduce rules that constitute language
Evidence is consistent with innate capacity, but other possibilities exist


Evidence for the nativist approach to language acquisition... (x5)

1-4 mo can discriminate sounds absent previous exposure
Vocab spurt at 18 mo not explicable through reinforcement/imitation
Overextension - no parent would reinforce such wild inaccuracies
Learning off abstract/complex words
Sheer speed of learning


Overextension is... (x2)

Words applied to wider range of referents than is correct
Eg dogs = all four legged creatures


Holophrastic speech is... (x3)
And holophrastic kids appear to...

Use of singe word to denote relational meaning
Eg 'doll' for doll's usual location in crib
Generally appears in month before starting to combine words
Understand basic word order rules, ie could identify 'Cookie Monster tickling Big Bird' over reverse order


Telegraphic speech... (x2)

Combing two words together, with correct word order but no morphological inflections
Content word gives most info, so speech is comprehensible


Over-regularisation errors... (x3)

Eg fell is falled
Shows understanding of rules, and that grammar not purely imitation/reinforcement
Rules then have to be 'unlearned' to gain particular words


The strict nativist account is challenged by findings that... (x2)

Only 1/1500 utterances contained a grammatical error, so
Speech input is not actually impoverished, but contextually comprehensible


Child-directed speech is...

Western speech for children
Higher pitch, exaggerated/rising intonation, slower speech, clear enunciation, simplified structure
More question/attention-directing
Shorter, well-formed, repetitive sentences - ltd complexity


Child-directed speech hypothesis...

Strong - that it's necessary for language acquisition
Weak - that it facilitates it
Difficult to support when other cultures don't use CDS at all