Wk 13 - Religion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 13 - Religion Deck (17):

Naive/intuitive dualism is...

A world of real objects/events out there is distinct form internal/mental world of thoughts/ideas


Evolutionary advantages to religion... (x6)

Social - group solidarity/competition
Economic - sustaining public goods
Political - mass opiate
Intellectual - explains mysteries
Heath/well-being - acceptance of death


Religious believers and psychological adjustment... (x2)
Effects qualified by...

Have higher self-esteem
Better adjusted
Link is stronger in more religious countries - benefits may ride on cultural values


Believing in a controlling god may...

Insulate from aversive arousal associated with randomness


Appropriate behaviour in larger groups may be 'policed' through...
As in research showing the effect...

Invocation of all-seeing god
Can be evoked using ghosts, or just eyes on wall


One argument for religion, outside adaptivity, is that it's...

A recurring cultural by-product of cognitive/emotional/material conditions of normal human interactions


The conceptual foundations of religion as a cultural by-product are...

Intuitively given by human folk mechanics, folk biology and folk psychology


Three distinctions that lend kids to religious beliefs...

Thoughts are not things - thinking unicorns doesn't = reality
Mental attitudes are individual/subjective - our worlds/likes are different
Mental acts aren't bodily behaviours - expression doesn't indicate thoughts


Increasing differentiation of mind from brain/body allows children to... (x2)

Increasingly imagine the mind transcending the body's death
Think there are things outside known reality


Children's understanding of death...

By early school, that it terminates bodily functions, applies to all living things, is irreversible
Still view the mind as active, e.g. dead mouse is still thinking


TOM, false beliefs and God...

Under 4, mum and god will know what previously unseen contents of box are
From 5, only god will


The anthropomorphism hypothesis is... (x3)

Kids first develop understanding of ordinary humans, which is extended to all agents
Later, less ltd capabilities of extraordinary agents are differentiated
Contrasts with the preparedness hypothesis


The preparedness hypothesis is... (x3)

Early conceptual structures used to reason about god are not for representing humans
Instead, facilitate acquisition/use of god/theistic concepts
Contrasts with the anthropomorphic hypothesis


Children believe religious stories because... (x3)

Tales mixing realistic/impossible content presented as historical by adults that kids trust
Kids accept evidently impossible events as real if god is invoked
Adaptive - need to believe adults, as trial-and-error truth finding could be fatal


The relationship between overimitation and ritual... (x3)

Both have stylised behaviours, that
Must be repeated in prescribed manner to attract/hold attention, and
Goals need demoting, so actions are end in themselves


Previous explanations for overimitation...

Causal immaturity
Social affiliation
Norm learning


Evidence for overimitation as ritualised behaviour is gained from results that... (x3)

Kids will continue to perform the sequence,
Even when not required/wanting to show their learning to the experimenter, and
The redundant behaviours are performed after the box has been opened