Wk 3 - Emotional Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 3 - Emotional Development Deck (33):

Emotions are...
And are enabled by the evolution of...

Feeling, or affect, that occurs when people are in a state of interaction that's important to them, especially one that influences their well-being
The limbic system


The functionalist view of emotions... (x4)

Modern developmentalists view emotions as individual's attempts to adapt to specific contexts
Child's emotional responses can't be separated from the situation in which they occur
Emotions are relational - not purely internal
By endo of first year, parents facial expressions will influence whether or not infants explore unfamiliar environment


Functionalism and goals... (x2)

Emotions are linked with goals, e.g. overcoming obstacle brings happiness
Nature of goal affects experience of emotion - avoiding threat is linked with fear, avoiding scrutiny linked with shame, atonement relates to guilt


Lewis defines 7 primary emotions that appear in first 6 months as...
Secondary emotions that require self-awareness are... (x6)

Surprise, interest, joy, sadness, anger, sadness, fear, disgust
Jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt


Hart and Carrington, 2002, tested early emotions in a study involving...
Which found that...
But this is controversial because...

6 mo watched as mother gave attention to book or doll
Infants more likely to sadness and anger when attention was on doll
Biologically impossible - structural immaturity of the brain make it unlikely


Expressions of crying (x3) and smiling (x2) and social relationships

Different types of crying include basic anger and pain; most adults can tell the difference; parents can tell own baby's from others'
Reflexive smile - emerges in first month, usually during sleep, isn't response to stimuli
Social smile - response to stimuli, often at 4-6 wks in response to caregivers voice


Daniel Messinger's research into the development of smiling found that... (x3)

2-6 months - both self-initiated and responsive smiles increase considerably
6-12 months - smiles that couple the Duchenne marker (eye constriction) and mouth opening occur during enjoyable interactions and play with parents
>12 months - smiling in positive parental situations and increasingly in peer interactions


Anticipatory smiles involve...
And is related to.... (x2)

Communication of pre-existing positive emotion by smiling at an object, then turning the smile to an adult
Anticipatory smiles at 6 mo correlates with same at 8 and 10 mo
And with parent-rated social expressivity scores at 30 months


Stranger anxiety emerges at...

6 mo
Is moer intense by 9 mo, and escalates through 1st b'day


Understanding emotions is important for a child because...

Emotions knowledge positively relates to 3-5 yo social competence and prosocial behaviour


Emotion-coaching parents... (x4)

Monitor child's emotions
View negative ones as opportunities for teaching
Assist them in labelling
Teach them how to effectively deal with them


Emotion-dismissing parents... (x2)

See their role as to deny, ignore, change negative emotions
Which is linked to poor emotion regulation


Peer relations and emotion regulation... (x3)

Emotions play strong role in success of peer relationships
Moody/negative children experience more peer rejection
Positive children are more popular


Impacts of capacity for emotional regulation beyond early childhood... (x6)

Improved emotional understanding
Knowing more than one emotion can be felt in situation
Aware of events that lead to emotional reactions
Ability to suppress negative reactions
Self-initiate strategies for redirecting feelings
Capacity for genuine empathy


Temperament... (x2)

Difference in behavioural styles, emotions and characteristic responses
How quickly emotions are shown, how strong they are, how long they last, how quickly they fade


Chess and Thomas' classified temperament of easy babies as... (x4)

Generally positive mood
Quick to establish routines
Adapt easily to new experiences
40% of infants


Chess and Thomas' classified temperament of difficult babies as... (x5)

React negatively
Cry frequently
Irregular routines
Slow to accept new experiences
10% of infants


Chess and Thomas' classified temperament of slow to warm up babies as... (x4)

Low activity level
Somewhat negative
Low intensity of mood
15% of infants


Rothbart and Bates classification of temperament moved away from categories, to consider which three dimensions?

Negative affectivity: Effortful control/self-regulation:


The dimension of extraversion/surgency involves... (x4)
And is part of which classification of temperament?

Positive anticipation
Activity level
Sensation seeking
Rothbart and Bates, 2006


The dimension of negative affectivity involves... (x5)
And is part of which classification of temperament?

Easily distressed, fret/cry oftenRothbart and Bates, 2006


The dimension of effortful control/self-regulation involves... (x5)
And is part of which classification of temperament?

Attentional focussing/shifting
Inhibitory control
Perceptual sensitivity
Low-intensity pleasure
High register show ability to keep arousal from peaking, can self-soothRothbart and Bates, 2006


Patterns of temperamental change during early development... (x3)

Birth - 2mo: smiling and laughter emerging as part of positive affectivity dimension
By 2 mo: infants show anger/frustration if actions don’t produce interesting outcome
4-12 mo: fear/irritability differentiate, inhibition linked with new/unpredictable experiences


An inhibited temperament is associated with which physiological characteristics? (x4)

High and stable heart rate
High cortisol
High activity in right frontal lobe
Maybe tied to excitability of the amygdala


Long term developmental impacts of temperament... (x3)

Highly active 4 yo likely to be outgoing 23 yo
Easy temperament at 3-5 yo more likely to be well-adjusted young adults, difficult temperament not
Boys with difficult temperament less likely to continue with formal education, girls more likely to experience marital conflict


Impacts of inhibited temperament on later behaviours... (x4)

Not assertive/socially supported adults
Delay entering stable job
Highly reactive infants avoid unfamiliar, become subdued adolescents - cautious, wary of new situations.
Low-reactive infants approach the unfamiliar, emotionally spontaneous/sociable in adolescence


Attachment is...(x2)

An infant's attachment to the primary caregiver
Or to an object that provides satisfaction


Harlow's monkeys...
Demonstrating that attachment is...

Preferred cloth food-free monkeys over steel ones with food
About comfort, not just food


Bowlby's view of attachment... (x5)

Is a lasting psychological connection
Psychoanalytic - lasting influence on development/behaviour
Early style established in childhood through infant/caregiver relationship
New biologically equipped to elicit attachment behaviour
Attachment develops through series of stages


Bowlby defined four main characteristics of attachment...

Proximity maintenance - desire to be near attachment figure
Safe haven - return to target for com for in face of fear/threat
Secure base - from which child can explore
Separation distress - anxiety if target is absent


Type A infants are... (x5)

Insecure Avoidant
Little interaction with caregiver
Not distressed by her departure
Don't re-establish contact, and
Lean away from caregivers attempts to do so


Type B infants are... (x4)

Caregiver as base for exploration
Displeasure at departure, active searching
Happy reunion, then
Resumption of play


Type C infants are... (x5)

Insecure Resistant
Cling anxiously, don't explore
Distressed by her departure, but
No joy on return, and
May push away attempts to comfort