Wk 9 - TOM/Autism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 9 - TOM/Autism Deck (26):

Play is... (x3)

Exaggerated, less serious then functional behaviour
Components may be arranged in unusual sequences
Means more important than ends (building with Lego over house constructed)


Functional play is...

Actions performed/objects used for sake of playing, yet without any non-literal elements


Def, and six defining-features of pretend play, the start of creativity

The non-literal use of objects and/or actions.
A pretender - someone needs to make it up
A reality - to differ from
A mental representation
That is projected onto reality
With awareness
And intention


Time spent at functional/pretend play... (x3)

Age 1-2, not much pretend - very functional at 1
3 yo spend 9 min/hr pretend play
4 yo - quarter of their time


Vygotsky's Zone of proximal development is... (x2)

The difference between what kids can do with/out help
Some things are inherent, others enhanced by interaction, e.g. pretend play


Piaget argued that pretend play is...

Immature conception of reality
Purely from imagination, therefor unsocial


Cultural learning theory fits with Vygotsky, holding pretence as... (x2)

Acquired in a similar way to instrumental actions
By cultural imitative learning, supported by adult scaffolding


Scaffolding, in terms of cultural learning theory, is...

Support that takes you from one level to another


Instrumental actions... (x3)

Intent to create concrete change
Can learn through imitation, or on own
Eg could figure out how to use a hammer


Pretend actions... (x3)

Function of actions on objects is socially constituted -
Can't discover on own


Vygotsky argues that pretend play is...

Socially constituted


Theory of mind is...

Common-sense understanding of the world
Involves an appreciation of mental states and,
That it's these mental states that determine behaviour


False-belief task tests demonstrate... (x2)
Which develop around the age of...

Theory of mind
Ability to take perspective of another
4 yo - rare for 2 yo to pass, or 6 yo fail


Association between TOM and pretend play...

Positive correlation between frequency/detail of pretend play and increased performance of TOM tests


Leslie's rich account of TOM holds that...(x3)

In order not to confuse fact/fiction children must cognitively keep apart pretend (this is an apple) and real content (this is a ball)
If you look ability to understand another's pretence - about same timeline as own pretend play
Involves metarepresentations


Metarepresentations involve... (X3)

Holding in mind an idea that differs from this reality
Ability to represent representations
Eg Jim said the news reported the elections


The lean account of TOM holds that... (x4)

Kids are just behaving 'as if'
Don't appreciate that pretence is a mental act
No need to ascribe any pretend attitude
Understanding is shallow


Autism is...
And causes...

Spectrum of life-long developmental disability characterised by impairment of understanding of what he or she sees, hears, senses
Issues with social relationships, communication and behaviour


Symptoms of autism... (x8)

Lack of eye contact
Object, not people oriented
Difficulties in social relationships
Odd speech - talk at you
More candid/emotionally expressive
More/less sensitivity can = touch avoidance
Very literal


Autism rates... (x2)

Up 600% since 70s, and 260% since '94
Genuine increase, improved detection, reduced stigma = search for diagnosis??


Autism is not... (x4)

Mental retardation
Savant syndrome - some, not most
Inability to have relationships
Lack of imagination/empathy


Asperger's syndrome may be characterised by... (x4)

Intelligence, factual knowledge, specialised vocab, memory for detail, affinity for computers, original/creative thought, independent learning
Difficulties with change/failure
Understanding subtext –remarks/behaviour offend
Social skills need learning intellectually over intuitively


False-belief task and autism...
Which demonstrates...

80% pass rate in research on down syndrome and typically developing, 20% for autism
Link with TOM/pretend play


Pretend play and autism... (x4)

Absence of pretence may predict later diagnosis
Nearly every study has found a deficit
Parents document a lack of role play in the everyday life of kids with autism
Diagnosis could be predicted by coding levels of pretend play observed in a playground


Link between pretend play, TOM and autism makes sense in light of... (x2)

Deficit in pretence in autistic is of interest, not capacity
Argument that play/TOM are social


Baron-Cohen et al, 1985, found that autism were impaired in...