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Flashcards in 00 Epilepsy Study Questions Deck (77):
1

Generic name of: Luminal

Phenobarbital

2

Generic name of: Dilantin

Phenytoin

3

Generic name of: Valium

Diazepam

4

Generic name of: Diastat

Diazepam (Rectal Gel)

5

Generic name of: Klonopin

Clonazepam

6

Generic name of: Tegretol

Carbamazepine

7

Generic name of: Epitol

Carbamazepine

8

Generic name of: Carbatrol

Carbamazepine

9

Generic name of: Depakene

Valproic Acid

10

Generic name of: Depakote

Divalproex Sodium

11

Generic name of: Depacon

Valproate Sodium

12

Generic name of: Neurontin

Gabapentin

13

Generic name of: Lamictal

Lamotrigine

14

Generic name of: Topamax

Topiramate

15

Generic name of: Trileptal

Oxcarbazepine

16

Generic name of: Oxtellar XR

Oxcarbazepine ER

17

Generic name of: Keppra

Levetiracetam

18

Generic name of: Lyrica

Pregabalin

19

What happens when Lamictal (Lamotrigine) is added to an AED regimen containing Valproate?

Dosing changes whether you are using an inducer or inhibitor

20

Petit Mal is known as what kind of seizure?

Absence

21

Grand Mal is known as what kind of seizure?

Tonic-Clonic

22

What is the DOC for absence seizure?

Ethosuximide (Zarontin) or Depakote is a good choice if that can't be used

23

What is the therapeutic range for Carbamazepine?

4-12

24

What is the therapeutic range for Ethosuximide

40-100

25

What is the therapeutic range for Phenobarbital?

15-40

26

What is the therapeutic range for Primidone?

5-12

27

What is the therapeutic range for Phenytoin?

10-20

28

What is the therapeutic range for Valproic Acid?

50-150

29

What test is used to measure seizure activity?

EEG

30

After initial dosing has been initiated, which anticonvulsant requires higher doses to achieve the same effects after several days?

Carbamazepine d/t auto-induction

31

Which anticonvulsant should you avoid in sulfa allergy?

Zonisamide

32

Which anticonvulsant should you avoid in patients with a previous hypersensitivity reaction to carbamazepine?

Felbatol

33

Which voltage-dependent channels are inhibited by some AEDs?

Na+ and Ca2+

34

What does GABA stand for?

Gamma Amino Butyric Acid

35

What are some common drugs that decrease seizure threshold?

Caffeine, Anti-depressants (e.g., Bupropion), Tramadol (>400mg), Meperidine (use morphine instead), Anti-psychotics (Clozapine, Chorpromazine), Theophylline

36

What is the broad spectrum AED that can be used in almost all patients?

Valproate

37

What is Status Epilepticus?

Continuous grand mal seizures lasting at least 5 (up to 30) minutes, or two or more sequential seizures without full recovery of consciousness between seizure attacks. Medical emergency. CAN'T USE ORAL MEDICATIONS

38

What are the DOC's for Status Epilepticus?

Diazepam (Valium, Diastat rectal gel) OR Lorazepam. Valproate sodium (Depacon) can always be used an an alternate

39

What are the DOC's for Partial Seizures?

Carbamazepine. Valproate as an alternative

40

What are the DOC's for Tonic-Clonic Seizures?

Valproate OR Carbamazepine

41

Which AEDs can cause Hyponatremia?

Oxcarbazepine, Carbamazepine

42

Which AEDs can cause Hyperammonemia?

Valproic Acid

43

Which AEDs can cause Pancreatitis?

Valproic Acid

44

Which AEDs can cause Polycystic Ovaries?

Valproic Acid, Carbamazepine

45

Which AEDs can cause Fatal Aplastic Anemia?

Felbamate

46

Which AEDs can cause Kidney Stones?

Zonisamide, Topiramate

47

Which AEDs can cause Gingival Hyperplasia?

Phenytoin

48

Which AEDs can cause SJS?

Lamotrigine

49

Which AEDs can cause Hiccups?

Ethosuximide

50

Which AEDs can cause Purple Glove Syndrome?

Phenytoin

51

Which AEDs can cause QTc Prolongation?

Ezogabine

52

Which AEDs can cause Urinary Retention?

Ezogabine

53

What are the C-IV AEDs?

All benzos, Phenobarbital, Mephobarbital

54

What are the C-V AEDs?

Pregabalin, Lacosamide, Ezogabine

55

What are the AEDs that can have loading doses?

Fosphenytoin, Phenobarbital, Valproate Sodium

56

What are the AEDs that are big enzyme inducers?

Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, Phenytoin, Fosphenytoin, Phenobarbital, Primidone, Topiramate (> 200mg)

57

When would be a time when Valproic acid would not be an appropriate choice?

Hepatic impairment

58

How does Oxcarbazepine compare to Carbamazepine?

Oxcarbazepine is advantages over CBZ in every way except that it causes hyponatremia

59

Why does Carbamazepine have so many SEs?

Because it is metabolized into 10,11-epoxide

60

How does Phenytoin compare to Fosphenytoin?

Phenytoin: infuse at 50mg/min in saline only. Fosphenytoin: infuse at 150mg/min in saline or dextrose

61

What pregnancy category do most AEDs fall into?

Category D

62

What are the Pregnancy Category D AEDs?

BZDs, Phenobarbital/primidone, VPA, Carbamazepine, Phenytoin/Fosphenytoin, Topiramate

63

What patients need to be screened before CBZ?

Asian descent for the HLA-B*1502 gene

64

When should you dose adjust Phenobarbital?

Decrease dose in renal or hepatic dysfunction

65

What seizure type must Phenytoin be avoided in?

Absence seizures

66

When is Phenytoin contraindicated?

Heart issues (2nd or 3rd degree AV block, sinus bradycardia, sino-atrial block)

67

What is the generic of Onfi?

Clobazam (Benzo)

68

What genetic polymorphism should be identified for Clobazam users?

CYP 2C19, polymorphism causes higher levels of drug, need to lower dose

69

What is the BBW for Valproate?

Hepatotoxicity, Teratogenicity, Pancreatitis

70

What is Stavzor?

Delayed-release capsules of Valproate

71

What is the BBW for Lamotrigine?

Life-threatening rashes. Slow gradual titration of dose may reduce the incidence

72

What do you need to advise patients who are going to start Topiramate?

Increase fluid intake to decrease risk of kidney stones

73

What is the generic for Oxtellar XR?

Oxcarbazepine extended release tabs

74

What are the drug interactions like with Keppra?

None clinically important, not metabolized by CYP450

75

What is the generic of Sabril?

Vigabatrin

76

What is Vigabatrin indicated for?

Refractory Epilepsy Infantile Spasms (IS)

77

What is the BBW for Vigabatrin?

Causes progressive and permanent bilateral concentric visual field constriction in a high percentage of patients (REMS program)