Report of 1800
A resolution drafted by James Madison in which he supported the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, supporting the sovereignty of the states against the Alien and Sedition Acts. When these arguments were applied by South Carolina in the Nullification Crisis of 1832, Madison argued they were misinterpreting his scholarship.
United States presidential election, 1800
Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) vs. John Adams (Federalist) A.K.A. the “Revolution of 1800” Chief political issues included: Taxes used to support the Quasi-War and the Alien and Sedition Acts. There was a split in the Federalist party between Hamilton and Adams. Jefferson and Aaron Burr won the same amount of electoral votes in a tie engineered by the Democratic-Republicans, however, Burr refused to concede, and the vote went to the House of Representatives which eventually elected Jefferson president and Aaron Burr vice president. The electors were chosen by the state legislatures, so there was no popular vote yet.
Treaty of Mortefontaine
Or the Convention of 1800, the treaty which ended the Quasi-War, and ended the diplomatic relationship period between the U.S. and France.
Chief Justice appointed in 1801, one of the foremost Federalists of his day. His court opinions helped lay the basis for United States constitutional law and many say made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches, by establishing federal judicial review.
Contingent election of 1801
An electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr is resolved, when Jefferson is elected President of the United States and Burr Vice President by the United States House of Representatives. The Federalists try to throw the election to Burr to spite Jefferson, but Pres. Adams’s endorsement of Jefferson sways them otherwise.
First Barbary War
A war between the United States and the Barbery States started by them in 1801-1805 during Jefferson’s presidency.
A system of crafting firearms patented by Eli Whitney in 1801.
The Louisiana Purchase
The purchase of Louisiana from the French for $15 million, completed under Jefferson’s presidency. Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition; they argued that it was unconstitutional to acquire any territory. Jefferson agreed that the U.S. Constitution did not contain explicit provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient.
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) The Supreme Court case which established judicial review
A U.S. naval officer who burned the USS Philadelphia during the First Barbary War because it was captured by the Tripolitis, renowned war hero in early 19th-century America.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 An expedition commissioned by Thomas Jefferson to explore the newly purchased territory in Louisiana. The campaign’s secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area’s plants, animal life, and geography, and to establish trade with local Native American tribes.
The 12th Amendment
Passed in 1804, it established the precedent that presidential candidates will run alongside their vice presidential candidates.
The Treaty of St. Louis of 1804
Signed by William Henry Harrison and Quashquame. The Sauk and Meskwaki tribes gave up a large swath of land in exchange for an annual payment of $1000 in goods. The treaty infuriated Native American tribes.
An 1804 duel between former secretary of the state Alexander Hamilton and Vice President Aaron Burr, Burr shot and killed Hamilton.
The Corps of Discovery
A special unit of the U.S. Navy whose only purpose was to serve as the nucleus of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
A Federalist-leaning Supreme Court Justice who was impeached by the Democratic-Republican Congress in 1804 because he was accused of being biased, he was acquitted of all charges. The end of Pres. Jefferson’s attempts to neuter the court system, typified by his outrage with judicial review and repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801, abolishing the lower courts.
United States presidential election, 1804
Incumbent Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson vs. Federalist Charles C. Pickney. Thomas Jefferson was reelected by an extremely large lead, with his new running mate George Clinton. Jefferson was seen as having a moderate policy agenda, and successfully executing the Louisiana Purchase.
An unorganized territory in modern-day Michigan created in 1805
Battle of Derne
(1805) The decisive victory of the U.S. over Tripoli forces in the city of Derne which ended the First Barbary War.
The man who created the first American dictionary.
The National Road
The first United States federal highway.
(1806-07) An expedition of the U.S. Army to explore the South and West territory of the Louisiana Purchase. Made some miscalculations, and ended up gaining important information about the Mexican and Spanish settlements of the West.
A cabal of prominent politicians, planters and Army officers lead by former Vice President Aaron Burr. Burr’s goal was to create an independent nation in the center of North America. In 1805, Pres. Jefferson ordered Burr arrested and indicted for treason, despite not providing firm evidence, and he was acquitted with his career ended.
An 1807 naval engagement off the coast of Virginia, the British Army boarded the USS Chesapeake looking for Royal Navy deserters. The ensuing battle lead to cries of war by the American public. The disrespect inspired Pres. Jefferson to pass the Embargo of 1807 as economic warfare.
The inventor of the North River Steamboat, the first American steamboat
Embargo Act of 1807
An embargo passed against Britain and France during the Napoleonic War in response to the violation of our neutrality proclamation. Its results were intended to hurt Great Britain and France into respecting U.S. neutrality, but the effects were devastating domestically, causing bitter protests. American merchants often evaded the tariff, hiding the profits from tax collectors. Pres. Jefferson was criticized for betraying Democratic-Republican values and repealed the Act during his final days in office.
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
An act which prohibited the importation of slaves in 1808, it was not well enforced.
A politician who was the first to successfully burn anthracite in 1808, leading to the widespread use of coal during America’s industrial revolution.
American Fur Company
A company founded by John Jacob Astor in 1808 which grew to monopolize the fur trade.
United States presidential election, 1808
Democratic-Republican James Madison defeated Federalist Charles Pinckney, sitting Vice President George Clinton boycotted his party’s convention and was renominated as Vice President to sabotage his presidential ambitions. The Federalists did well in the Northeast, crippled by the Embargo Act, but the Democrat-Republicans’ superior political organization, and numerous newspaper endorsements, provided them with a broader base of support.