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The Missouri Compromise

1820 federal statute from Henry Clay. Entered slave state Missouri with free state Maine, and banned slavery north of the parallel 36°30′ north.


United States presidential election, 1820

James Monroe was reelected virtually unopposed. The Federalists did not name a candidate, they were became irrelevant on the national stage despite managing local elections in New England. Public sentiment was good, despite the ongoing economic panic. Voter turnout was low in states that had popular votes.


First Vision

The first vision of Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Jr., which he received in the Spring of 1820.


1821 Norfolk and Long Island hurricane

A destructive hurricane which made landfall in New York City.


Santa Fe Trail

Pioneered in 1821, an important transportation route between Missouri and New Mexico until the railroad in 1880, it accelerated economic development and growth in the southwest. The Comanches were originally important trading partners, but by the 1840s, the traffic had disrupted the buffalo's grazing patterns, hastening their extinction, and the decline of the Comanches.


Denmark Vesey

A freed slave who was hanged for plotting a slave revolt, he became a hero for black abolitionists.


The Rocky Mountain Fur Company

Originally known as Ashley's Hundred. Led Northwest expeditions with the purpose of trapping beavers during the 1820s, in competition with the American Fur Company. Dissolved in 1834, due to a shrinking beaver population and changed in public taste and style.



Nation founded in 1821 during the Back-to-Africa movement. The American Colonization Society sponsored the return of freed black Americans to their ancestral homeland. The nation's capital is Monrovia, a reference to Pres. James Monroe.


Arikara War

(1823) A brief war fought between the United States and Arikara Native Americans in South Dakota, the first of many engagements with Western Native American tribes.


Lone Horn

He was chief of the Minneconjou Lakota from 1790-1877.


Monroe Doctrine

An American policy introduced in 1823 which decried any European interference in the burgeoning region of Latin America.


A Visit from St. Nicholas

AKA "'Twas the Night Before Christmas," it was an 1823 American poem which created many of the modern perceptions of Santa Claus.


Tribal sovereignty

The inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves. It was a precedent established by jurisprudence during the onset of Manifest Destiny.


A. B. plot

A political scandal 1823-24 involving a Sen. Edwards from Illinois and William H. Crawford, Sec. of the Treasury. Sen. Edwards published anonymous letters lambasting Crawford and demanded he be removed for his economic policies. A congressional committee exonerated Crawford and Edwards political career was ruined.


U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs

Formed by Henry C. Calhoun in 1824 without authority from Congress.



A respected leader of the Choctaw tribe, buried with full military honors in Washington.


Half-Breed Tract

A segment of land designated specifically for "mixed bloods," people of European and Native American descent, during the 19th century.


United States presidential election, 1824

Signaling the definite end of the "Era of Good Feelings." The nation had grown resentful of the King Caucus, in which the Democratic-Republican party would essentially choose the president. At the caucus, the Democratic-Republicans selected William Crawford, unpopular stroke victim, who ran against Democratic-Republicans Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and Henry Clay. This was the first election in which a large majority of electors were chosen by votes. With no outright majority in the electoral college, despite Jackson's large margins of victory, the House elected John Quincy Adams, who met privately with many congressmen, and was aided by Speaker of the House Henry Clay. Clay was appointed Secretary of State which led Jacksonians to cry "corrupt bargain."


The Corrupt Bargain

During the election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was given the presidency by Henry Clay over Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, became Secretary of State under Adams leading many to believe there was a plot between the two.


Treaty of Indian Springs

1825- A treaty in which the Creek Indians ceded land to the state of Georgia. It was narrowly approved by Congress and disgruntled Creeks lead by Menawa murdered William McIntosh, who signed the treaty on their behalf.


Kaw Nation

Land occupied by Kaw Indians which they ceded to the United States, forming the Kansas Territory.


Treaty of Prairie du Chien

(1825) Several treaties signed between Americans and Native Americans helping the United States gain land in Wisconsin.


Treaty of Washington (1826)

The Creeks ceded much of their land in Georgia to the federal government.


The American Temperance Society

A popular group formed in 1826 committed to abolitionism, temperance, and women's rights.


Eggnog Riot

A drunken 1826 riot which took place at West Point on Christmas due to the smuggling of whiskey into the academy.


Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

The first railroad in the United States offering transportation of both goods and people since 1831.


Freedom's Journal

An abolitionist newspaper, the first African-American owned and operated newspaper published in the United States, begun in 1827.


Winnebago War

A disagreement between the Ho-Chunk tribe and invading lead minors in 1827. Two native men arrested for murder were pardoned by Pres. John Quincy Adams. Used to support the policy of Indian Removal, suggesting whites and natives can't live together peacefully.


The Birds of America

A book published between 1827 and 1838 containing illustrations of numerous birds in the United States, it was popular internationally.



A restaurant opened in New York in 1827, it was extremely innovative as well as influential.


Tariff of Abominations

A protective tariff passed under John Q. Adams' presidency in 1828. Its purpose was to protect Northern industry by taxing low-price imported goods. The South was harmed directly by having to pay more for goods they could not produce, and indirectly harmed by worsening the cotton trade with Great Britain.


United States presidential election, 1828

One of the most important elections, ushered in the era of modern campaigning. Democrat Andrew Jackson defeated National Republican John Quincy Adams. Voters now decided the election. Jackson's team established pro-Jackson newspapers. Both sides organized rallies, parades, and other public events. Personalities and slander were important, Andrew and his wife Rachel were vilified as adulterers. Jackson's proclivities for dueling and gambling became exaggerated talking points. Pres. Adams was attacked as an aristocrat who misappropriated tax dollars.


South Carolina Exposition and Protest

An 1828 document written by Vice President John C. Calhoun saying that South Carolina would secede if the Tariff of Abominations wasn't repealed, citing the doctrine of nullification in a reference to Jefferson and Madison's Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 and 1799. Worsened relations between Jackson and Calhoun


Thomas D. Rice

An American performer who created blackface.


A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus

A largely fictitious autobiography of Christopher Columbus written by American author Washington Irving in 1828. It popularized the unshakeable mistruth that Columbus proved the Earth was round.


Working Men's Party

A labor oriented political party based on laborer-rights. It made waves and won several local elections but died out in the 1830s.


Nullifier Party

A short-lived political party started by John C. Calhoun in South Carolina during the 1830s. Its' major belief was that states could nullify federal laws.


Anti-Masonic Party

A political party which survived for only a decade and was based solely on the belief that Freemasonry was evil, as a reaction against Pres. Andrew Jackson. It is significant because it gained several seats in the House of Representatives and introduced nominating conventions and party platforms into American politics.


The Ring frame

An invention which revolutionized the fashion industry in the 1840s and 50s during the Industrial Revolution.


William Austin Burt

The inventor of the typewriter.


Georgia Gold Rush

A significant gold rush which caused a migration to Georgia in 1829. Most of the gold was gone by the early 1840s and prospectors moved West to California.