Macon’s Bill Number 2
A bill passed by Congress in 1810 to motivate Britain and France to stop stealing American ships during the Napoleonic Wars, by lifting embargoes against those nations temporarily.
The Republic of West Florida
An area of the Florida panhandle which claimed independence from Spain in 1810 and was succinctly annexed by America under Pres. Madison.
1811 German Coast Uprising
The largest slave insurgency in American history, lead by Charles Deslandes.
Commissioners’ Plan of 1811
The original grid design plan for the streets of Manhattan.
Battle of Tippecanoe
An 1811 battle which was part of Tecumseh’s War. The American forces lead by William Henry Harrison versus the Native Americans lead by Tenskwatawa . The Americans had a number of casualties but succeeded in their goal of destroying the city of Prophetstown.
1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes
The most powerful earthquakes to ever hit the Eastern United States, reversed the course of the Mississippi River for a while.
Reasons the United States declared war on Britain in 1812:
1) Trade restrictions brought on by Britain’s continuous war with France.2) The impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy.3) British support of Native American tribes.4) Possible interest in annexing parts of Canada.
USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere
Single ship action during the War of 1812 which would prove to be a boost to American morale.
Battle of Queenston Heights
The first major battle of the War of 1812. It was a victory for Britain and stopped America from attempting to invade Canada through Niagara Falls.
United States presidential election, 1812
Incumbent Democratic-Republican James Madison vs. Moderate Federalist DeWitt Clinton. Major issue was war, in 1810 Madison sought peace but declared nonintercourse with the British. War broke out in 1812. Clinton won in the Northeast, which was then being ravaged by the War of 1812, but Madison won the South and West comfortably.
Battle of Stoney Creek
(1813) A British victory in the War of 1812 and a turning point in the American campaign to capture upper Canada.
Fort Mims massacre
(1813) The Red Stick Creek slaughtered settlers in Fort Mims, Alabama during the Creeks War.
Battle of Lake Erie
(1813) Americans won control of Lake Erie and were able to break the Indian confederation of Tecumseh.
Battle of the Thames
A battle fought in 1813 which resulted in the death of Tecumseh.
The Saint Lawrence Campaign
An American victory plan in 1813 during the War of 1812 which failed after losses in the Battle of the Chateauguay and the Battle of Crysler’s Farm.
The Creek War
(1813-1814) A civil war within the Creek Nation which the United States eventually involved itself in by joining the Lower Creeks to attack the Red Stick Creeks.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
1814- General Andrew Jackson and the American Indian allies defeated the Red Sticks ending the Creek War.
Burning of Washington
An incident during the War of 1812 in which numerous D.C. buildings were burned and the White House was occupied.
The First Lady of the United States during the War of 1812, she worked at risk of her own life to save countless historical objects from being destroyed by the British.
Battle of Plattsburgh
An American victory at the end of the War of 1812, in 1814, which pushed Britain out of the Northeast and stopped them from being able to claim any land.
The Star-Spangled Banner
The National Anthem, written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812.
A series of meeting 1814-15 in which Federalists met to discuss their grievances. The convention floated removing the three-fifths compromise, and requiring a two-thirds supermajority in Congress for the admission of new states, declarations of war, and laws restricting trade. However, Andrew Jackson’s decisive military win resulted in their disgrace and the end of the Federalist party.
Treaty of Ghent
(1814) Ended the War of 1812, neither the British nor the Americans made any gains.
Occurred in the early 1800s, looking for political stability and religious freedom.
Battle of New Orleans
(1815) One of the greatest American war victories ever. Lead by Andrew Jackson against the overwhelming British force, the battle was fought after the war itself ended and the Treaty of Ghent had been signed.
African Methodist Episcopal Church
A primarily African-American Methodist religious denomination founded by Richard Allen in 1816, the first religious organization founded for black people in America.
The Dallas tariff
Passed in 1816 under Pres. Madison, it’s purpose was to protect American goods from foreign competition. It was popular in the North, detested in the South.
The Second Bank of the United States
The second bank, based on the Hamiltonian model, to handle all of the government’s finances. It was chartered under Pres. Madison in 1816, and died at the hands of Pres. Jackson in 1832.
United States presidential election, 1816
Democratic-Republican James Monroe defeated Federalist Rufus King. The federalists were in shambles after the War of 1812, so much so, that they didn’t even bother pairing their nominee with a Vice Presidential candidate.
Bonus Bill of 1817
Legislation vetoed by Madison which would’ve earmarked funding for infrastructure improvement. He supported the effort, and agreed improvements were necessary, but was a strict constitutionalist.
An 1817 treaty between the U.S. and Britain which limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes.
General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America
A meeting which forms the governing body of the entire Episcopal church.
An important port in New York which established New York City as the biggest center of international trade from the 1820s on.
Era of Good Feelings
A period of political history from 1816-1825 that reflected a desire for pride and unity following the War of 1812. The era saw the collapse of the Federalist party.
First Seminole War
(1814-1819) A dispute between Seminoles (Native Americans and black people living in Florida) and the American government, started by Andrew Jackson destroying Negro Fort. Jackson was driven to “tame” Florida so it could be profitable real estate.
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland of 1818
AKA, the Treaty of 1818. Allowed for joint occupation of Oregon Country by Britain and the U.S. (the 49th parallel), under Monroe’s presidency.
Arbuthnot and Ambrister incident
An 1818 incident during the First Seminole War in which Andrew Jackson ordered the executions of several British and Cherokee leaders, an unheard of diplomatic incident.
Panic of 1819
Announced a movement in the U.S. from colonial commercial status to laissez-faire capitalism. The severity of the downturn was driven by the end of the Napoleonic Wars, and excessive real estate speculation. The nascent Second Bank of the United States worsened the panic by devaluing the dollar. Massive unemployment and widespread bankruptcy weakened faith in the New Republicans and their American system, tariff protection, internal improvements, and the BUS. Ended the Era of Good Feelings and birthed the era of Jacksonian Nationalism.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819) This Supreme Court case found that states can’t impair private industry charters, and force private industries to publicize. The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation and the American free enterprise system
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) The Supreme Court rules that the National Bank is constitutional, Congress has certain implied rights to help them govern, and collect taxes. Also clarified the subservience of state constitutions to the national constitution.
Signed 1819, this treaty gave Florida to the U.S. and established land boundaries with Spain along the Texas border, which we would later “redraw.”
A proposed 1819 amendment which intended to settle the issue of slavery in Missouri by ending slavery, effectively within a generation.