Flashcards in 1960s Deck (153):
Along with Jacques Piccard, in 1960 he journeyed into the Marianas Trench.
In 1960, in the deep South, these sit-ins were successful and instrumental in sparking similar sit-ins nationwide.
This Soviet leader was responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union. He was removed from power after his soft handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1960 U-2 incident
During Eisenhower's presidency, a U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union and the pilot was captured.
The U-2 spy plane pilot taken as prisoner by the Soviet Union in 1960.
Civil Rights Act of 1960
Signed by Eisenhower, this law extended the right of the federal government to penalize anyone who tried to stop anyone else from voting and gave the gov. the right to enforce desegregation.
In 1960 he invented the laser.
Alfred Hitchcock's 1960 thriller.
To Kill a Mockingbird
Harper Lee's 1960 novel about racism in the South.
Communist Castro ousted sitting president Batista resulting in an American embargo against the nation.
1960 presidential election debate
The first televised presidential debate. Those who watched on TV thought the handsome Kennedy won, while those listening on radio thought the articulate Nixon won.
This controversial Olympic boxer refused to be drafted into Vietnam.
A volunteer program created by President Kennedy in 1961.
United States presidential election, 1960
Democrat Kennedy defeated Republican Nixon. Nixon visited all 50 states instead of focusing on swing states. Kennedy narrowly won due to veep Lyndon B. Johnson's popularity in the South and his connections.
Boynton v. Virginia
(1960) Supreme Court declares segregation on public transport unconstitutional.
Kennedy's personal physician. He got him hooked on pain killers to deal with his back pain.
American musician known for his early 60s folk and civil rights songs.
Ham the Chimp
In 1961 this chimp was launched into outer space by the US as part of the Space Race.
This 1961 Amendment gave the District of Columbia the right to vote.
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
The 1961 UN agreement foreshadowing the 80s War on Drugs.
Judy at Carnegie Hall
Judy Garland's 1961 concert at Carnegie Hall was considered by many to be the greatest night in show business history.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Early in Kennedy's presidency (1961), his military sent a trained force to Cuba where they managed to overrun a local militia before being overran by Castro's army. It strengthened ties between Cuba and the Soviet Union.
1961 desegregation activists who caused a firestorm when they rode through the South.
A program of space flights undertaken by US (Kennedy) to land a man on the moon.
Held in 1961 after the Bay of Pigs disaster, Kennedy and Khrushchev discussed Cuba, space, and atomic energy.
Part of the Space Race, this was the first manned American suborbital flight in 1961 with Alan Shepherd.
The Fantastic Four #1
This 1961 comic book created the Marvel Universe.
A moderate leader of the NAACP during the 60s Civil Rights Movement. He praised Pres. Kennedy and FBI leader Hoover.
Kennedy's wife was a fashion icon known for her 1962 tour of the White House.
Engel v. Vitale
(1962) Declared school prayer to be unconstitutional.
MANual Enterprises v. Day
(1962) Photographs of nude men (gay pornography) can not be censored because they are not obscene.
Baker v. Carr
(1962) The redistricting of state legislative districts is not a political question, and thus is justiciable by the federal courts.
Starlet known for her affair with President Kennedy.
The Golden Age of Radio
The time lasting from the early 1920s to the 1950s
First African-American to enter the segregated University of Mississippi, needed a federal escort from Kennedy.
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
A controversial 1962 play by Edward Albee about a couple with marriage problems.
Cuban missile crisis
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later and was fired.
Richard Nixon's last press conference
In 1962 after Nixon lost the race for California governor he gave this speech where he said "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore."
Sex and the Single Girl
Helen Gurley Brown's 1962 non-fiction novel encouraging women to become financially independent and have sex before marriage.
This Alabama governor declared in 1963, "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever!"
The Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan's 1963 book which sparked the second-wave feminism movement in the U.S..
Gideon v. Wainwright
(1963) Supreme Court declares states must provide lawyers with those who can't afford them.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
Martin Luther King's open letter in which he preaches non-violent protest and a moral responsibility to break unjust laws.
Nonviolent protests for Civil Rights in Birmingham, AL during the late '50s and throughout the 60s. During one march, Birmingham Sheriff Bull Connor turned fire hoses on the peaceful protesters, shocking the public with a cruel act that gathered the media attention important to the success of the Civil Rights Movement.
The Birmingham Commissioner of Public Safety who, in 1963, turned fire hoses on peaceful protesters leading to a unified public outcry against racism.
The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan's 1963 album which included lyrics about civil rights and articulated anxieties about the fear of nuclear warfare. An important part of 1960s folk music.
Abington School District v. Schempp
(1963) The Court rules that Bible reading in public schools is unconstitutional.
The "Ich bin ein Berliner" Speech
A 1963 speech given by JFK in which he clearly stated U.S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall.
A term used by JFK in his acceptance speech at the 1960 Democratic National Convention. Mainly focused on alleviating poverty and investing in the space program.
Huế chemical attacks
In 1963, soldiers of Ngo Dinh Diem's army poured liquid chemicals onto the heads of praying Buddhist monks. The incident caused America to reduce funding to Diem, an event which lead to a coup.
Ngo Dinh Diem
The American-backed leader of South Vietnam who commanded the ARV until he was killed in a 1963 coup.
Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
In 1963 Alabama governor George Wallace personally stood in the door at the University of Alabama to block two black students from enrolling.
Civil Rights Address
A speech about civil rights given by JFK in 1963 which was praised by MLK.
A war veteran and civil rights activist who was shot in 1963 for trying to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi.
Double Seven Day scuffle
A 1963 political altercation between Ngo Dinh Diem's secret police and American journalists.
The Buddhist Crisis
In 1963, protesting Diem's policies toward Buddhists, Buddhist monks set themselves on fire in the streets of Saigon and other locations. These incidents drew negative publicity towards the Diem regime.
Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
A 1963 treaty signed by the U.S., the U.K., and the Soviet Union which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground.
Following Anti-Buddhist raids in 1963 by Diem's regime, the State Department sent a message to then-diplomat to South Vietnam Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. that America may seek an orchestration of a coup if Diem is not removed from power.
Xá Lợi Pagoda raids
These 1963 raids against Buddhist pagodas were part of the Buddhist Crisis and lead to the sending of Cable 243.
I Have a Dream
A public speech delivered in 1963 by MLK at the March on Washington fueled the Civil Rights Movement.
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
One of the largest-ever rallies for human rights. The protesters demanded human and economic equality for African-Americans.
16th Street Baptist Church bombing
This 1963 bombing marked a turning point in the Civil Rights Movement and contributed to support for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
This committee was created by Kennedy in 1963 and it lead to sex being included in the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the creation of the NOW.
Message to the Grass Roots
The name of Malcolm X's 1963 speech in which he described the difference between the "Black revolution" and the "Negro revolution", he contrasted the "house Negro" and the "field Negro" during slavery and in the modern age, and he criticized the 1963 March on Washington.
Lee Harvey Oswald
The sniper who assassinated JFK in 1963.
The nightclub owner who assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963.
President Johnson's committee created to investigate Kennedy's assassination. It reached the conclusion that Oswald was the only shooter and Ruby was acting alone as well.
This craze towards the Beatles began in 1963 in the U.S. with the releases of "I Want To Hold Your Hand" and "I Saw Her Standing There."
War on Poverty
The unofficial name for legislation released by Pres. Johnson in 1964 as part of his Great Society.
1964. A riot broke out in the Panama Canal Zone over sovereignty resulting in the deaths of over 20 Panamanians.
The British Invasion
Occured during the 1960s when British culture and rock and roll music became very popular in the United States.
A more radical alternative to Martin Luther King, Jr., his fundamental belief was not that caucasians should make small concessions to African-Americans, but that African-Americans should do all they can to get full rights now.
1964 Brazilian coup d'état
The United States backed an overthrow of President João Goulart and a conservative military dictatorship resumed power.
The 'stop-Goldwater' movement
In 1964 some Republicans adopted an "anyone but Goldwater" mentality, because of Goldwater's extreme Republican beliefs Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton ran for president for the purpose of denying Goldwater the nomination, although he failed.
Republican Party presidential primaries, 1964
The Republican Party rebounded in the early 1960s from its 1958 disaster. Goldwater won the nomination, beating moderate Republicans Nelson Rockefeller and Harry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
A young woman who was raped and murdered in 1964. Although all of her neighbors saw, they did nothing.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Johnson signed this into place, it ended racial segregation in the U.S. and ended discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Gulf of Tonkin incident
Alleged attack of US ships by North Vietnamese torpedoes in the Tonkin Gulf on August 4, 1964. Prompted the escalation of the War in Vietnam.
Operation Pierce Arrow
This 1964 military operation followed the Gulf of Tonkin incident and included random bombs being dropped on North Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964, gave Pres. Johnson the authorization for the use of "conventional" military force in Southeast Asia.
Fannie Lou Hamer
An African-American voting and civil rights activist.
1964 Philadelphia race riot
This race riot was caused by the issue of police brutality against black citizens.
Pres. Johnson's 1964 campaign ad which featured a little girl playing in a field before being nuclear bombed. It was an important factor in Johnson's victory over Goldwater and marked a change in politics.
Free Speech Movement
1964-1965, a student protest which took place at the University of California, Berkeley over the student's right to protest and practice political activism. They were marked by many riots.
United States presidential election, 1964
President Johnson swept the unpopular and too-conservative Barry Goldwater.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
(1964) This case upheld the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, ending racial discrimination.
Johnson's new major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation.
Selma to Montgomery marches
A 1965 march for voting rights. On "Bloody Sunday" a local police force of all white men attacked the protesters violently.
This civil rights group played a major role in the sit-ins and marches of the 60s.
In 1965 this symbolic and powerful act of protest was occurring at protests all over the United States.
United States v. O'Brien
(1968) The Supreme Court finds it illegal to burn draft cards as freedom of expression.
1965 Vietnam War troop increase
Johnson announced that he is increasing the number of troops he sends to Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000 and the number of men drafted from 17,000 to 35,000.
Social Security Amendments of 1965
Pres. Johnson signed Medicare and Medicaid into creation.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Pres. Johnson signed this into law. It forbids racial discrimination in voting practices.
A 1965 race riot in Los Angeles caused by police brutality and housing inequality and segregation.
In 1965, responding to intelligence of a Viet Cong strike on American forces, America launches a preemptive attack against them, the outcome of which was indecisive.
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Johnson signed this act, abolishing immigration quotas.
Alice Herz, Norman Morrison, and Roger Allen LaPorte
In 1965 these people set themselves on fire protesting the Vietnam War.
Battle of Ia Drang
1965: First (and only) major battle between U.S. and North Vietnam.
Parties held in the 1960s centered around the use of LSD. Helped the transition from the beat generation to the hippie generation.
Robert C. Weaver
A member of FDR's Black Cabinet, he was the first African-American in the cabinet in 1966. Appointed by LBJ.
Rose to prominence in the 1960s with the book "Unsafe at Any Speed," he is a consumer advocate who was run for president in several cycles from 1992 to 2008.
Church of Satan
A church founded in 1966 centered around the satanic bible. It was indicative of the darker side of the counterculture movement.
Miranda v. Arizona
(1966) Police must inform suspects of their rights before questioning them.
A feminist organization founded in 1966.
Freedom of Information Act
Signed by LBJ in 1966 in response to the wave of public protests.
1966 Cleveland race riots caused by segregation.
More popular than Jesus
John Lennon made this remark in 1966. Very indicative of the religious counterculture movement going on at the time.
United States Department of Transportation
Created by President Johnson in 1966.
A holiday celebrating African culture and history birthed in 1966 from the afrocentrism movement.
An American rock band formed in 1965.
In 1967 everyone sat in a San Francisco park and did LSD, origin of the word "psychedelic," prelude to the Summer of Love.
Summer of Love
(1967) peak of hippie counterculture movement, came into public view -- free love, music, sexual freedom, drugs
Outer Space Treaty
An international agreement, signed by the United States and the former Soviet Union, in 1967 that banned the introduction of military weapons into outer space, prohibited the extension of national sovereignty in space, and encouraged cooperation and sharing of information about space research.
Deals with succession to the presidency and the filling of a vacant vice presidential seat.
A 1967 song made famous by Aretha Franklin, important for the feminist movement.
Central Park be-in
Several "be-ins" held in Central Park from 1967-1968, protesting things like Vietnam and racism.
Black Panther Party
Organization of armed black militants formed in Oakland, California, in 1966 to protect black rights. The Panthers represented a growing dissatisfaction with the non-violent wing of the civil rights movement, and signaled a new direction to that movement after the legislative victories of 1964 and 1965.
USS Liberty incident
During the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel accidentally fired on a U.S. research ship.
Loving v. Virginia
(1967) Declared laws prohibiting interracial marriage to be unconstitutional.
First African-American Supreme Court justice.
12th Street riot
A large and important 1967 Detroit race riot.
A singer/songwriter in the 1960's who used music and her reputation to make civil rights and nonviolence important issues in the publics eyes
A 60s musical that was a product of the hippie counterculture and sexual revolution movement.
U.S. senator who challenged incumbent president Johnson in the 1968 Democratic primary due to the unpopularity of the Vietnam War.
The Tet Offensive
A Viet Cong fighting style debuted in 1968 which involved direct guerilla attacks against South Vietnam, including the U.S. embassy in Saigon. Lowered morale among American troops and made the war more difficult to win.
The name of Eddie Adams's 1968 photograph of a gun being held against the head of a Viet Cong rebel. It was a factor in turning mainstream U.S. opinion against the Vietnam War.
My Lai Massacre
In 1968 U.S. troops gang-raped and slaughtered masses of Vietnamese civilians. Information of the atrocity leaked to the public one year later.
King assassination riots
After King's 1968 assassination, riots broke out in urban cities all over the U.S..
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Gave equal housing rights to black people. Signed by Pres. Johnson after the assassination of Dr. King.
Columbia University protests of 1968
One of many student demonstrations from the time period.
Nine activists who burned selective draft records with napalm to protest the war in Vietnam.
Robert F. Kennedy
Attorney general under his brother, as a U.S. Senator, he was assassinated in 1968 after ensuring himself the presidential nomination from the Democratic party.
Black militants engage in a gunfight with police in 1968.
The Miss America protest
A 1968 protest against the Miss America competition. This type of protesting is associated with "bra-burning feminism."
1968 Olympics Black Power salute
An act of protest by two African-American athletes during World War 2.
United States presidential election, 1968
Republican Nixon easily defeated Democrat Hubert Humphrey and segregationist George Wallace, on his promise of a return to law & order, following a year of riots and protests.
Tinker v. Des Moines
(1969) Students can wear whatever they want to public school, within limit.
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
The South Vietnamese president with whom Pres. Nixon met in 1969 to discuss the withdrawal of troops from the region.
A far left terror group which emerged in the late 60s, formed by student activists.
Triggered activist protests among gays and lesbians - police raided gay bar - people fought back - became symbol of oppression of LGBT community, began the gay rights movement.
The 1960s and 70s coalitions of students and activists who focused less on those oppressed by capitalism, and instead sought reform on issues regarding race, gay rights, abortion, gender, and drugs.
In 1969, A female friend of Sen. Ted Kennedy mysteriously drowned in a car accident. The resulting scandal probably influenced his decision to not seek the presidency.
Leader of a cult which was responsible in 1969 for numerous killings.
A 1969 music festival held in upstate New York featuring some of the more popular performers of the time.
The 1969 space flight that landed American men on the surface of the moon.
Nixon's belief, laid out in a 1969 speech, that the U.S. will honor its existing commitments, but that it has no responsibility to involve itself in affairs all over the world.
Nixon frequently talked about the "silent majority." Reasonable people who believed in civil rights and an end to the War in Vietnam, but didn't like the riots and protesting that was going on.
Days of Rage
Violent protests lead by the radical Weatherman group held in 1969.
Several activists charged with inspiring a riot in 1969 for their actions at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. The conviction triggered the Days of Rage.
Nixon's segregationist Supreme Court nominee, he was rejected by Congress in 1969.
In 1969 the draft was used for the first time since World War 2, the practice was shown to not actually be random, and Americans grew angry.