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Flashcards in 1960s Deck (153):
1

Don Walsh

Along with Jacques Piccard, in 1960 he journeyed into the Marianas Trench.

2

Greensboro sit-ins

In 1960, in the deep South, these sit-ins were successful and instrumental in sparking similar sit-ins nationwide.

3

Nikita Khrushchev

This Soviet leader was responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union. He was removed from power after his soft handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

4

1960 U-2 incident

During Eisenhower's presidency, a U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union and the pilot was captured.

5

Francis Powers

The U-2 spy plane pilot taken as prisoner by the Soviet Union in 1960.

6

Civil Rights Act of 1960

Signed by Eisenhower, this law extended the right of the federal government to penalize anyone who tried to stop anyone else from voting and gave the gov. the right to enforce desegregation.

7

Theodore Maiman

In 1960 he invented the laser.

8

Psycho

Alfred Hitchcock's 1960 thriller.

9

To Kill a Mockingbird

Harper Lee's 1960 novel about racism in the South.

10

Cuban Revolution

Communist Castro ousted sitting president Batista resulting in an American embargo against the nation.

11

1960 presidential election debate

The first televised presidential debate. Those who watched on TV thought the handsome Kennedy won, while those listening on radio thought the articulate Nixon won.

12

Muhammad Ali

This controversial Olympic boxer refused to be drafted into Vietnam.

13

Peace Corps

A volunteer program created by President Kennedy in 1961.

14

United States presidential election, 1960

Democrat Kennedy defeated Republican Nixon. Nixon visited all 50 states instead of focusing on swing states. Kennedy narrowly won due to veep Lyndon B. Johnson's popularity in the South and his connections.

15

Boynton v. Virginia

(1960) Supreme Court declares segregation on public transport unconstitutional.

16

Max Jacobson

Kennedy's personal physician. He got him hooked on pain killers to deal with his back pain.

17

Bob Dylan

American musician known for his early 60s folk and civil rights songs.

18

Ham the Chimp

In 1961 this chimp was launched into outer space by the US as part of the Space Race.

19

23rd Amendment

This 1961 Amendment gave the District of Columbia the right to vote.

20

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

The 1961 UN agreement foreshadowing the 80s War on Drugs.

21

Judy at Carnegie Hall

Judy Garland's 1961 concert at Carnegie Hall was considered by many to be the greatest night in show business history.

22

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Early in Kennedy's presidency (1961), his military sent a trained force to Cuba where they managed to overrun a local militia before being overran by Castro's army. It strengthened ties between Cuba and the Soviet Union.

23

Freedom Riders

1961 desegregation activists who caused a firestorm when they rode through the South.

24

Apollo program

A program of space flights undertaken by US (Kennedy) to land a man on the moon.

25

Vienna summit

Held in 1961 after the Bay of Pigs disaster, Kennedy and Khrushchev discussed Cuba, space, and atomic energy.

26

Project Mercury

Part of the Space Race, this was the first manned American suborbital flight in 1961 with Alan Shepherd.

27

The Fantastic Four #1

This 1961 comic book created the Marvel Universe.

28

Roy Wilkins

A moderate leader of the NAACP during the 60s Civil Rights Movement. He praised Pres. Kennedy and FBI leader Hoover.

29

Jacqueline Kennedy

Kennedy's wife was a fashion icon known for her 1962 tour of the White House.

30

Engel v. Vitale

(1962) Declared school prayer to be unconstitutional.

31

MANual Enterprises v. Day

(1962) Photographs of nude men (gay pornography) can not be censored because they are not obscene.

32

Baker v. Carr

(1962) The redistricting of state legislative districts is not a political question, and thus is justiciable by the federal courts.

33

Marilyn Monroe

Starlet known for her affair with President Kennedy.

34

The Golden Age of Radio

The time lasting from the early 1920s to the 1950s

35

James Meredith

First African-American to enter the segregated University of Mississippi, needed a federal escort from Kennedy.

36

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

A controversial 1962 play by Edward Albee about a couple with marriage problems.

37

Cuban missile crisis

An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later and was fired.

38

Richard Nixon's last press conference

In 1962 after Nixon lost the race for California governor he gave this speech where he said "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore."

39

Sex and the Single Girl

Helen Gurley Brown's 1962 non-fiction novel encouraging women to become financially independent and have sex before marriage.

40

George Wallace

This Alabama governor declared in 1963, "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever!"

41

The Feminine Mystique

Betty Friedan's 1963 book which sparked the second-wave feminism movement in the U.S..

42

Gideon v. Wainwright

(1963) Supreme Court declares states must provide lawyers with those who can't afford them.

43

Letter from Birmingham Jail

Martin Luther King's open letter in which he preaches non-violent protest and a moral responsibility to break unjust laws.

44

Birmingham campaign

Nonviolent protests for Civil Rights in Birmingham, AL during the late '50s and throughout the 60s. During one march, Birmingham Sheriff Bull Connor turned fire hoses on the peaceful protesters, shocking the public with a cruel act that gathered the media attention important to the success of the Civil Rights Movement.

45

Bull Connor

The Birmingham Commissioner of Public Safety who, in 1963, turned fire hoses on peaceful protesters leading to a unified public outcry against racism.

46

The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan's 1963 album which included lyrics about civil rights and articulated anxieties about the fear of nuclear warfare. An important part of 1960s folk music.

47

Abington School District v. Schempp

(1963) The Court rules that Bible reading in public schools is unconstitutional.

48

The "Ich bin ein Berliner" Speech

A 1963 speech given by JFK in which he clearly stated U.S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall.

49

New Frontier

A term used by JFK in his acceptance speech at the 1960 Democratic National Convention. Mainly focused on alleviating poverty and investing in the space program.

50

Huế chemical attacks

In 1963, soldiers of Ngo Dinh Diem's army poured liquid chemicals onto the heads of praying Buddhist monks. The incident caused America to reduce funding to Diem, an event which lead to a coup.

51

Ngo Dinh Diem

The American-backed leader of South Vietnam who commanded the ARV until he was killed in a 1963 coup.

52

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

In 1963 Alabama governor George Wallace personally stood in the door at the University of Alabama to block two black students from enrolling.

53

Civil Rights Address

A speech about civil rights given by JFK in 1963 which was praised by MLK.

54

Medgar Evers

A war veteran and civil rights activist who was shot in 1963 for trying to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi.

55

Double Seven Day scuffle

A 1963 political altercation between Ngo Dinh Diem's secret police and American journalists.

56

The Buddhist Crisis

In 1963, protesting Diem's policies toward Buddhists, Buddhist monks set themselves on fire in the streets of Saigon and other locations. These incidents drew negative publicity towards the Diem regime.

57

Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

A 1963 treaty signed by the U.S., the U.K., and the Soviet Union which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground.

58

Cable 243

Following Anti-Buddhist raids in 1963 by Diem's regime, the State Department sent a message to then-diplomat to South Vietnam Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. that America may seek an orchestration of a coup if Diem is not removed from power.

59

Xá Lợi Pagoda raids

These 1963 raids against Buddhist pagodas were part of the Buddhist Crisis and lead to the sending of Cable 243.

60

I Have a Dream

A public speech delivered in 1963 by MLK at the March on Washington fueled the Civil Rights Movement.

61

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

One of the largest-ever rallies for human rights. The protesters demanded human and economic equality for African-Americans.

62

16th Street Baptist Church bombing

This 1963 bombing marked a turning point in the Civil Rights Movement and contributed to support for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

63

Presidential Commission on the Status of Women

This committee was created by Kennedy in 1963 and it lead to sex being included in the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the creation of the NOW.

64

Message to the Grass Roots

The name of Malcolm X's 1963 speech in which he described the difference between the "Black revolution" and the "Negro revolution", he contrasted the "house Negro" and the "field Negro" during slavery and in the modern age, and he criticized the 1963 March on Washington.

65

Lee Harvey Oswald

The sniper who assassinated JFK in 1963.

66

Jack Ruby

The nightclub owner who assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963.

67

Warren Commission

President Johnson's committee created to investigate Kennedy's assassination. It reached the conclusion that Oswald was the only shooter and Ruby was acting alone as well.

68

Beatlemania

This craze towards the Beatles began in 1963 in the U.S. with the releases of "I Want To Hold Your Hand" and "I Saw Her Standing There."

69

War on Poverty

The unofficial name for legislation released by Pres. Johnson in 1964 as part of his Great Society.

70

Martyrs' Day

1964. A riot broke out in the Panama Canal Zone over sovereignty resulting in the deaths of over 20 Panamanians.

71

The British Invasion

Occured during the 1960s when British culture and rock and roll music became very popular in the United States.

72

Malcolm X

A more radical alternative to Martin Luther King, Jr., his fundamental belief was not that caucasians should make small concessions to African-Americans, but that African-Americans should do all they can to get full rights now.

73

1964 Brazilian coup d'état

The United States backed an overthrow of President João Goulart and a conservative military dictatorship resumed power.

74

The 'stop-Goldwater' movement

In 1964 some Republicans adopted an "anyone but Goldwater" mentality, because of Goldwater's extreme Republican beliefs Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton ran for president for the purpose of denying Goldwater the nomination, although he failed.

75

Republican Party presidential primaries, 1964

The Republican Party rebounded in the early 1960s from its 1958 disaster. Goldwater won the nomination, beating moderate Republicans Nelson Rockefeller and Harry Cabot Lodge, Jr.

76

Kitty Genovese

A young woman who was raped and murdered in 1964. Although all of her neighbors saw, they did nothing.

77

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Johnson signed this into place, it ended racial segregation in the U.S. and ended discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

78

Gulf of Tonkin incident

Alleged attack of US ships by North Vietnamese torpedoes in the Tonkin Gulf on August 4, 1964. Prompted the escalation of the War in Vietnam.

79

Operation Pierce Arrow

This 1964 military operation followed the Gulf of Tonkin incident and included random bombs being dropped on North Vietnam.

80

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1964, gave Pres. Johnson the authorization for the use of "conventional" military force in Southeast Asia.

81

Fannie Lou Hamer

An African-American voting and civil rights activist.

82

1964 Philadelphia race riot

This race riot was caused by the issue of police brutality against black citizens.

83

Daisy

Pres. Johnson's 1964 campaign ad which featured a little girl playing in a field before being nuclear bombed. It was an important factor in Johnson's victory over Goldwater and marked a change in politics.

84

Free Speech Movement

1964-1965, a student protest which took place at the University of California, Berkeley over the student's right to protest and practice political activism. They were marked by many riots.

85

United States presidential election, 1964

President Johnson swept the unpopular and too-conservative Barry Goldwater.

86

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States

(1964) This case upheld the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, ending racial discrimination.

87

Great Society

Johnson's new major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation.

88

Selma to Montgomery marches

A 1965 march for voting rights. On "Bloody Sunday" a local police force of all white men attacked the protesters violently.

89

SNCC

This civil rights group played a major role in the sit-ins and marches of the 60s.

90

Draft-card burning

In 1965 this symbolic and powerful act of protest was occurring at protests all over the United States.

91

United States v. O'Brien

(1968) The Supreme Court finds it illegal to burn draft cards as freedom of expression.

92

1965 Vietnam War troop increase

Johnson announced that he is increasing the number of troops he sends to Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000 and the number of men drafted from 17,000 to 35,000.

93

Social Security Amendments of 1965

Pres. Johnson signed Medicare and Medicaid into creation.

94

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Pres. Johnson signed this into law. It forbids racial discrimination in voting practices.

95

Watts Riots

A 1965 race riot in Los Angeles caused by police brutality and housing inequality and segregation.

96

Operation Starlite

In 1965, responding to intelligence of a Viet Cong strike on American forces, America launches a preemptive attack against them, the outcome of which was indecisive.

97

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

Johnson signed this act, abolishing immigration quotas.

98

Alice Herz, Norman Morrison, and Roger Allen LaPorte

In 1965 these people set themselves on fire protesting the Vietnam War.

99

Battle of Ia Drang

1965: First (and only) major battle between U.S. and North Vietnam.

100

Acid Tests

Parties held in the 1960s centered around the use of LSD. Helped the transition from the beat generation to the hippie generation.

101

Robert C. Weaver

A member of FDR's Black Cabinet, he was the first African-American in the cabinet in 1966. Appointed by LBJ.

102

Ralph Nader

Rose to prominence in the 1960s with the book "Unsafe at Any Speed," he is a consumer advocate who was run for president in several cycles from 1992 to 2008.

103

Church of Satan

A church founded in 1966 centered around the satanic bible. It was indicative of the darker side of the counterculture movement.

104

Miranda v. Arizona

(1966) Police must inform suspects of their rights before questioning them.

105

The NOW

A feminist organization founded in 1966.

106

Freedom of Information Act

Signed by LBJ in 1966 in response to the wave of public protests.

107

Hough Riots

1966 Cleveland race riots caused by segregation.

108

More popular than Jesus

John Lennon made this remark in 1966. Very indicative of the religious counterculture movement going on at the time.

109

United States Department of Transportation

Created by President Johnson in 1966.

110

Kwanzaa

A holiday celebrating African culture and history birthed in 1966 from the afrocentrism movement.

111

The Doors

An American rock band formed in 1965.

112

Human Be-In

In 1967 everyone sat in a San Francisco park and did LSD, origin of the word "psychedelic," prelude to the Summer of Love.

113

Summer of Love

(1967) peak of hippie counterculture movement, came into public view -- free love, music, sexual freedom, drugs

114

Outer Space Treaty

An international agreement, signed by the United States and the former Soviet Union, in 1967 that banned the introduction of military weapons into outer space, prohibited the extension of national sovereignty in space, and encouraged cooperation and sharing of information about space research.

115

25th Amendment

Deals with succession to the presidency and the filling of a vacant vice presidential seat.

116

Respect

A 1967 song made famous by Aretha Franklin, important for the feminist movement.

117

Central Park be-in

Several "be-ins" held in Central Park from 1967-1968, protesting things like Vietnam and racism.

118

Black Panther Party

Organization of armed black militants formed in Oakland, California, in 1966 to protect black rights. The Panthers represented a growing dissatisfaction with the non-violent wing of the civil rights movement, and signaled a new direction to that movement after the legislative victories of 1964 and 1965.

119

USS Liberty incident

During the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel accidentally fired on a U.S. research ship.

120

Loving v. Virginia

(1967) Declared laws prohibiting interracial marriage to be unconstitutional.

121

Thurgood Marshall

First African-American Supreme Court justice.

122

12th Street riot

A large and important 1967 Detroit race riot.

123

Joan Baez

A singer/songwriter in the 1960's who used music and her reputation to make civil rights and nonviolence important issues in the publics eyes

124

Hair

A 60s musical that was a product of the hippie counterculture and sexual revolution movement.

125

Eugene McCarthy

U.S. senator who challenged incumbent president Johnson in the 1968 Democratic primary due to the unpopularity of the Vietnam War.

126

The Tet Offensive

A Viet Cong fighting style debuted in 1968 which involved direct guerilla attacks against South Vietnam, including the U.S. embassy in Saigon. Lowered morale among American troops and made the war more difficult to win.

127

Saigon Execution

The name of Eddie Adams's 1968 photograph of a gun being held against the head of a Viet Cong rebel. It was a factor in turning mainstream U.S. opinion against the Vietnam War.

128

My Lai Massacre

In 1968 U.S. troops gang-raped and slaughtered masses of Vietnamese civilians. Information of the atrocity leaked to the public one year later.

129

King assassination riots

After King's 1968 assassination, riots broke out in urban cities all over the U.S..

130

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Gave equal housing rights to black people. Signed by Pres. Johnson after the assassination of Dr. King.

131

Columbia University protests of 1968

One of many student demonstrations from the time period.

132

Catonsville Nine

Nine activists who burned selective draft records with napalm to protest the war in Vietnam.

133

Robert F. Kennedy

Attorney general under his brother, as a U.S. Senator, he was assassinated in 1968 after ensuring himself the presidential nomination from the Democratic party.

134

Glenville Shootout

Black militants engage in a gunfight with police in 1968.

135

The Miss America protest

A 1968 protest against the Miss America competition. This type of protesting is associated with "bra-burning feminism."

136

1968 Olympics Black Power salute

An act of protest by two African-American athletes during World War 2.

137

United States presidential election, 1968

Republican Nixon easily defeated Democrat Hubert Humphrey and segregationist George Wallace, on his promise of a return to law & order, following a year of riots and protests.

138

Tinker v. Des Moines

(1969) Students can wear whatever they want to public school, within limit.

139

Nguyễn Văn Thiệu

The South Vietnamese president with whom Pres. Nixon met in 1969 to discuss the withdrawal of troops from the region.

140

Weather Underground

A far left terror group which emerged in the late 60s, formed by student activists.

141

Stonewall riots

Triggered activist protests among gays and lesbians - police raided gay bar - people fought back - became symbol of oppression of LGBT community, began the gay rights movement.

142

New Left

The 1960s and 70s coalitions of students and activists who focused less on those oppressed by capitalism, and instead sought reform on issues regarding race, gay rights, abortion, gender, and drugs.

143

Chappaquiddick incident

In 1969, A female friend of Sen. Ted Kennedy mysteriously drowned in a car accident. The resulting scandal probably influenced his decision to not seek the presidency.

144

Charles Manson

Leader of a cult which was responsible in 1969 for numerous killings.

145

Woodstock

A 1969 music festival held in upstate New York featuring some of the more popular performers of the time.

146

Apollo 11

The 1969 space flight that landed American men on the surface of the moon.

147

Nixon Doctrine

Nixon's belief, laid out in a 1969 speech, that the U.S. will honor its existing commitments, but that it has no responsibility to involve itself in affairs all over the world.

148

Silent majority

Nixon frequently talked about the "silent majority." Reasonable people who believed in civil rights and an end to the War in Vietnam, but didn't like the riots and protesting that was going on.

149

Days of Rage

Violent protests lead by the radical Weatherman group held in 1969.

150

Chicago Seven

Several activists charged with inspiring a riot in 1969 for their actions at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. The conviction triggered the Days of Rage.

151

Clement Haynsworth

Nixon's segregationist Supreme Court nominee, he was rejected by Congress in 1969.

152

Draft lottery

In 1969 the draft was used for the first time since World War 2, the practice was shown to not actually be random, and Americans grew angry.

153

Altamont Free Concert

Thought of as "the end of the sixties" it's intention was to be the "Woodstock in the West," but it is best remembered for violence.