World’s Columbian Exposition
This Chicago World’s Fair held in 1893 saw the introduction of many marvelous inventions.
A Victorian-Era inspired 1890 Cleveland shopping mall.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890- First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Wounded Knee Massacre
In December 1890, Army troops captured some of Sitting Bull’s followers and took them to a camp. 300 Sioux men, women, and children were killed
Famous for black and white erotic paintings which made him a father of the 1890s Art Nouveau and poster styles.
John Philip Sousa
American bandmaster and composer who wrote comic operas and marches such as Stars and Stripes Forever (1897).
International Copyright Act of 1891
An act which extended limited copyright protection to foreign works.
A New Orleans police chief whose 1891 murder sparked anti-Italian sentiments and the beginning of the “mafia” misconception.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
A pioneering Russian composer whose works made a big splash in America.
Invented basketball in 1892.
Johnson County War
1892, Wyoming Stock Growers Association hired gunmen to get rid of small operators accused of stealing cattle, eventually required federal intervention.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
1892 strike at Andrew Carnegie’s steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers. The worker’s movement lost traction as a result.
An American cause célèbre, she was accused of butchering her father and step-mother in 1892.
A group of Wild West outlaws active until 1892 who specialized in bank and train robberies.
United States presidential election, 1892
Grover Cleveland was elected once again over Republican Harrison and Populist Weaver. Harrison was unpopular, and both parties seemed to favor a moderate approach to reform.
1892 New Orleans general strike
Blacks and whites united in New Orleans, successfully.
This 1892 Mexican War precursor was fought on the Texas-Mexican border.
American-Hawaiian Intervention of 1893
Queen Liliuokalani is overthrown by the U.S. Marines.
Panic of 1893
1893-1897 the United States was in one of its worst ever depressions as a result of bank runs and misplaced trust in silver and Argentina.
The Turner Thesis
The 1893 idea that the cause of all the problems in America was the end of the frontier.
Parliament of the World’s Religions
In 1893, Chicago representatives from all the world’s major religions gathered to peacefully discuss global affairs.
May Day Riots of 1894
Following the 1893 economic panic, these deadly riots occured, they were very closely associated with leftist politics and communism.
An 1894 national railway workers strike which failed after president Cleveland ordered government intervention.
Sanford B. Dole
A wealthy pineapple manufacturer who encouraged the westernization of Hawaii during the 1890s.
In re Debs
(1895) The government had a right to regulate interstate commerce and ensure the operations of the Postal Service.
Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington in 1895 that African-Americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.
W. E. B. Du Bois
A more radical alternative to Booker T. Washington, he argued blacks should have full equality NOW.
Cross of Gold speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic Convention, in which he attacked the “gold bugs” who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
United States presidential election, 1896
With over 90% voter turnout this extremely important election took place during an economic depression, and public opinion was split between those who favored the gold standard and free silver. Republican McKinley received the support of major corporations and defeated Democrat-Populist Bryant by painting him as a radical.
St. Augustine Monster
A globster postulated to be the remains of a giant octopus discovered in Florida in 1896.
Klondike Gold Rush
From 1896 to 1900 miners stampeded into Alaska in search of gold, leading to the deaths of the Han people.
The violent deaths in 1897 of about a dozen striking coal workers.
The ship which exploded in 1898 in the port of Havana, Cuba, leading to the deaths of hundreds of American soldiers precipitating the Spanish-American War.
Advocated for women in the military in the Spanish-American War.
Best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War.
Battle of Manila Bay
1898- The American Navy defeated the Spanish, ending colonial Spanish rule in the Philippines.
Battle of San Juan Hill
1898- The bloodiest battle of the Spanish-American War, much of the credit for our victory went to Teddy Roosevelt despite the brunt of the fighting being done by buffalo soldiers.
1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, associated with Teddy Roosevelt.
Treaty of Paris (1898)
An agreement made in 1898 that resulted in the Spanish Empire’s surrendering control of Cuba and ceding Puerto Rico, parts of the Spanish West Indies, the island of Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. The cession of the Philippines involved a payment of $20 million from the United States to the Spanish Empire.
(1899-1902) An armed conflict between America and Filipino Revolutionaries, it failed for them, and it would be over a decade before they received independence.
Open Door Policy
Sec. of State John Hay’s 1899 plan to allow America to trade freely with China.
A proposed waterway through Nicaragua which the Nicaraguan government refused, so Roosevelt funded a revolution to create the nation of Panama.
Gold Standard Act
1900- Under McKinley, bimetallism was stopped.