2.2 Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.2 Carbohydrates Deck (38):
1

why do we need carbohydrates?

for energy

2

what are carbohydrates made up of?

hydrogen, oxygen and carbon

3

what type of compounds are carbohydrates?

organic compounds

4

what are the three types of carbohydrate?

monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides

5

what are the three types of monosaccharides?

glucose, fructose and galactose

6

what type of monosaccharide is glucose?

a hexose monosaccharide

7

what are monosaccharides?

the simplest single sugars

8

what happens when monosaccharides react with water?

they dissolve to form sweet tasting solutions

9

what are alpha glucose and beta glucose?

isomers

10

what type of monosaccharide is ribose?

a pentose monosaccharide

11

where is deoxyribose found?

DNA

12

where is ribose found?

RNA

13

what is formed when two monosaccharides join?

a disaccharide

14

what bond is formed when two monosaccharides join to form a disaccharide?

a glycosidic bond, for example when two glucose join to form maltose this is a 1-4 glycosidic bond as carbon 1 is bonded to carbon 4

15

What reaction occurs when a monosaccharide forms a disaccharide?

A condensation reaction, H2O is lost and as a result water is formed as a product

16

What happens to a disaccharide to go back to monosaccharides?

They hydrolyse (water is added)

17

What is a polysaccharide formed from?

Many monosaccharides

18

What are three types of polysaccharide?

Starch, glycogen and cellulose

19

What is starch used for?

It is the main storage polysaccharide in plants

20

What type of glucose is starch made of?

Alpha glucose

21

What are the two polymers of alpha glucose?

Amylose and amylopectin

22

What is the structure of amylose?

chain of glucose molecules, form a helix structure by hydrogen bonding

23

What is the function of the structure of amylose?

helix forms a compact shape good for packaging making it a good storage molecule

24

What is the structure of amylopectin?

Chains of glucose molecules, after every 25 glucose molecules adjacent chains are connected by alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds, giving it a BRANCHED STRUCTURE

25

What is the function of the structure of amylopectin?

The branched ends can be hydrolysed rapidly allowing the rapid release of glucose for energy

26

What makes starch a good storage polysaccharide?

It is insoluble in water

27

What is glycogen used for?

It is the main storage polysaccharide of animal and fungi cells

28

What is the structure of glycogen?

Similar to amylopectin, but it has more branches which are shorter, making it more compact

29

What is the function of the structure of glycogen?

can be quickly broken down to release glucose for energy
structure allows faster hydrolysis important as animals may need emergency glucose faster than plants

30

What is cellulose used for?

It is the structural polysaccharide in plants

31

What is the structure of cellulose?

Long unbranched chains of glucose, linked to each other by hydrogen bonds, which are formed into strong microfibrils

32

What bonds are the glucose chains in cellulose linked by?

Beta 1-4 glycosidic bonds

33

What type of glucose is cellulose made of?

Beta glucose

34

What is the function of the structure of cellulose?

Hydrogen bonding prevents water entering the molecule making it resistant to enzyme hydrolysis, makes it a good structural polysaccharide.
Cellulose in plant cell walls provides protection

35

What are the three types of disaccharide?

Maltose, sucrose and lactose

36

What is maltose the product of?

Glucose + Glucose

37

What is sucrose the product of?

Fructose + Glucose

38

What is lactose the product of?

Galactose + Glucose

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