Flashcards in 2.6 Cell Specialisation Deck (41):
what is differentiation?
when a cell becomes specialised to carry out a particular function
what are the 3 types of variation?
changes in no. of organelles
change in shape of cell
change in contents of cell
give an example of a cell with changes to the number of organelles:
give an example of a cell with change to its shape:
root hair cell
give an example of a cell with change to its contents:
what is a tissue?
group of cells
what is a organ?
group of tissues
what is a organ system?
group of organs
what are the 4 types of tissue?
name some types of epithelial tissue:
name some types of connective tissue:
name some types of muscle tissue:
are arteries and veins organs or tissues?
organs as they are made of many tissue types
are capillaries organs or tissues?
what are erythrocytes?
red blood cells
how is the shape of erythrocytes adapted to their function?
flattened bio-concave shape increases surface area to volume ratio essential to their role of transporting O2
how are erythrocytes adapted to their function in their contents?
no nuclei and few organelles
increases space for haemoglobin
how are erythrocytes adapted to their function in being flexible?
flexible to squeeze through narrow capillaries
what are neutrophils?
white blood cells
how is a neutrophils nucleus adapted to it's function?
easy for them to change shape and squeeze through small gaps to get to the site of infection
how is a neutrophils granular cytoplasm adapted to it's function?
contains many lysosomes with enzymes to attack pathogens
how is a sperm cell adapted to swim?
many mitochondria for energy
how is a sperm cell's nucleus adapted to it's function?
large nucleus to store genetic information
what adaptions does a palisade cell have?
thin cell walls
rectangular in shape
what adaptations does a sperm cell have?
what adaptations does a erythrocyte have?
no nuclei and organelles
flattened bio concave shape
what adaptations does a neutrophil have?
how is a palisade cell having chloroplasts useful for its function?
absorb large amounts of light for photosynthesis
how is a palisade cell having thin cell walls useful for its function?
increases rate of CO2 diffusion
how is a palisade cell having rectangular box shapes useful for its function?
to pack closely together
how is a palisade cell having large vacuoles useful for its function?
lots of water to maintain turgor pressure
what adaptations does a root hair cell have?
long extensions - root hairs
how is a root hair cell having long extensions useful for its function?
increases surface area
how is a root hair cell having thin cell wall useful for its function?
absorbs water and ions from soil
what adaptations does a guard cell have?
thick cell wall on one side
what do pairs of guard cells form? and what is their role?
openings called stomata
to allow CO2 to diffuse in and O2 to diffuse out
when water is lost what happens to the guard cells?
they become less swollen which closes the stomata preventing water loss
how is a guard cell having a thicker cell wall on one side useful for its function?
so the cell doesn't change shape as the volume does
what adaptations does ciliated epithelium have?
how is ciliated epithelium having cilia useful to it's function?
stops bacteria entering trachea by wafting mucous