2.6 Cell Specialisation Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology > 2.6 Cell Specialisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.6 Cell Specialisation Deck (41):
1

what is differentiation?

when a cell becomes specialised to carry out a particular function

2

what are the 3 types of variation?

changes in no. of organelles
change in shape of cell
change in contents of cell

3

give an example of a cell with changes to the number of organelles:

muscle cell

4

give an example of a cell with change to its shape:

root hair cell

5

give an example of a cell with change to its contents:

RBC

6

what is a tissue?

group of cells

7

what is a organ?

group of tissues

8

what is a organ system?

group of organs

9

what are the 4 types of tissue?

muscle
epithelial
connective
nervous

10

name some types of epithelial tissue:

squamous
ciliated

11

name some types of connective tissue:

blood
cartilage

12

name some types of muscle tissue:

smooth
cardiac
striated

13

are arteries and veins organs or tissues?

organs as they are made of many tissue types

14

are capillaries organs or tissues?

tissues

15

what are erythrocytes?

red blood cells

16

how is the shape of erythrocytes adapted to their function?

flattened bio-concave shape increases surface area to volume ratio essential to their role of transporting O2

17

how are erythrocytes adapted to their function in their contents?

no nuclei and few organelles
increases space for haemoglobin

18

how are erythrocytes adapted to their function in being flexible?

flexible to squeeze through narrow capillaries

19

what are neutrophils?

white blood cells

20

how is a neutrophils nucleus adapted to it's function?

multi lobed
easy for them to change shape and squeeze through small gaps to get to the site of infection

21

how is a neutrophils granular cytoplasm adapted to it's function?

contains many lysosomes with enzymes to attack pathogens

22

how is a sperm cell adapted to swim?

flagellum
many mitochondria for energy

23

how is a sperm cell's nucleus adapted to it's function?

large nucleus to store genetic information

24

what adaptions does a palisade cell have?

chloroplasts
thin cell walls
rectangular in shape
large vacuoles

25

what adaptations does a sperm cell have?

flagellum
large nuclei
many mitochondria

26

what adaptations does a erythrocyte have?

flexible
no nuclei and organelles
flattened bio concave shape

27

what adaptations does a neutrophil have?

multilobed nucleus
granular cytoplasm

28

how is a palisade cell having chloroplasts useful for its function?

absorb large amounts of light for photosynthesis

29

how is a palisade cell having thin cell walls useful for its function?

increases rate of CO2 diffusion

30

how is a palisade cell having rectangular box shapes useful for its function?

to pack closely together

31

how is a palisade cell having large vacuoles useful for its function?

lots of water to maintain turgor pressure

32

what adaptations does a root hair cell have?

long extensions - root hairs
thin walls

33

how is a root hair cell having long extensions useful for its function?

increases surface area

34

how is a root hair cell having thin cell wall useful for its function?

absorbs water and ions from soil

35

what adaptations does a guard cell have?

thick cell wall on one side

36

what do pairs of guard cells form? and what is their role?

openings called stomata
to allow CO2 to diffuse in and O2 to diffuse out

37

when water is lost what happens to the guard cells?

they become less swollen which closes the stomata preventing water loss

38

how is a guard cell having a thicker cell wall on one side useful for its function?

so the cell doesn't change shape as the volume does

39

what adaptations does ciliated epithelium have?

cilia
goblet cells

40

how is ciliated epithelium having cilia useful to it's function?

stops bacteria entering trachea by wafting mucous

41

what do goblet cells of the ciliated epithelium do?

secrete mucous to trap bacteria preventing damage to the lungs

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