5.3 Liver Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5.3 Liver Deck (55):
1

What are the 3 main metabolic waste products in animals?

Carbon dioxide
Bile pigments
Nitrogenous waste

2

What is CO2 a waste product of?

Respiration it is excreted from lungs

3

What are bile products a waste product of?

Haemoglobin breakdown they are excreted in bile from the small intestine via the gall bladder and bile duct

4

What is nitrogenous waste/urea a waste product of?

The breakdown of amino acids in the liver excreted by kidneys into the urine

5

How much of the total body mass does the liver make up?

5%

6

What can the liver do if damaged/ part removed?

Regenerate and grow quickly

7

The liver has a rich blood supply of what per minute?

1 dm3

8

Which artery supplies the liver with blood?

The hepatic artery

9

Which vein removes blood from the liver and returns it to the heart?

The hepatic vein

10

What does the hepatic portal vein do?

Carries blood containing digestive products from intestines to liver

11

Up to 75% of blood flowing through the liver comes from where?

The hepatic portal vein

12

What are liver cells called?

Hepatocytes

13

What organelles indicate hepatocytes are metabolically active?

Large nuclei
Prominent Golgi apparatus
Lots of mitochondria

14

Hepatocytes can divide and replicate so the liver can regenerate even if how much is lost?

65%

15

What are surrounded by hepatocytes?

The sinusoids

16

What are sinusoids?

Spaces where blood from hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein mix

17

The mixing of blood in the sinusoids can do what?

Increase the oxygen content of the blood supplying hepatocytes with enough oxygen for their needs

18

Sinusoids contain kuppfer cells what do they act as and how?

Macrophages
Ingesting foreign particles and helping protect against disease

19

What are the canaliculi?

Spaces where hepatocytes secrete bile from breakdown of blood

20

From the canaliculi bile drains into where?

Bile ductules which then take it to the gall bladder

21

(Carbohydrate metabolism) hepatocytes are involved in homeostatic control of what?

Glucose levels

22

(Carbohydrate metabolism) 1. Carbohydrates are broken down to what and where?

Glucose
In the small intestine

23

(Carbohydrate metabolism) 2. What happens to the glucose in the small intestine?

Absorbed in to the bloodstream

24

(Carbohydrate metabolism) 3. The glucose in the bloodstream is transported where?

To the liver

25

(Carbohydrate metabolism) 4. The liver does what to the glucose?

Removes excess and stores it as glycogen

26

(Carbohydrate metabolism) 5. What happens to glycogen between meals?

It is broken down between meals as a source of energy

27

(Carbohydrate metabolism) 6. The glycogen is converted to what and released where when blood sugar levels fall?

Glucose
Released into bloodstream

28

(Carbohydrate metabolism) 6. Which hormone causes glycogen to be converted to glucose?

Glucagon

29

(Deamination) hepatocytes carry out transamination, what is this?

Conversion of one amino acid to another

30

(Deamination) why is transamination important?

The diet doesn't always have the correct balance of amino acids

31

(Deamination) deamination involves the removal of what?

An amine group from an amino acid

32

(Deamination) deamination is important as the body cannot do what?

Store proteins and amino acids they would be wasted and excreted if it weren't for hepatocytes

33

(Deamination) the amine group is removed and converted to what?

Ammonia

34

(Deamination) the ammonia is then converted to what? In which cycle?

Urea
The ornithine cycle

35

(Deamination) which is more toxic ammonia or urea?

Ammonia
Urea is toxic in high concentrations

36

(Deamination) what happens to the remainder of the amino acid during deamination?

Used in cell respiration or converted into lipids

37

In the ornithine cycle ammonia is converted to less toxic urea in a series of what?

Enzyme controlled reactions

38

Look over diagram of ornithine cycle

Look over diagram of ornithine cycle

39

(Detoxification)Why are levels of toxins in the body always increasing?

Metabolic processes producing potentially toxic substances
Choice - alcohol and drug consumption

40

(Detoxification) where in the body are a lot of toxic substances detoxified and made harmless?

The liver

41

(Detoxification) what is one example of detoxification?

Breakdown of hydrogen peroxide

42

(Detoxification) in breakdown of hydrogen peroxide, what do hepatocytes contain?

Catalase

43

(Detoxification) in breakdown of hydrogen peroxide what does catalase do?

Breaks down hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water

44

(Detoxification) what is another example of detoxification?

Break down of ethanol toxic drug in alcohol

45

(Detoxification) in ethanol breakdown, what enzyme is found in hepatocytes?

Alcohol dehydrogenase

46

(Detoxification) what does alcohol dehydrogenase do?

Breaks down ethanol to ethanal

47

(Detoxification) in ethanol breakdown, ethanal is converted to what? And where is this used?

Ethanoate
Used to build up fatty acids or used in respiration

48

alcohol produces a toxic enzyme called what?

acetaldehyde

49

acetaldehyde can damage the liver, what is its effects?

permanent scarring
reduced ability for liver to regenerate
irreversible
decreases life expectancy

50

cirrhosis of the liver is a disease when normal liver tissue is replaced by what?

fibrous scar tissue

51

what is the most common cause of cirrhosis?

excessive alcohol consumption

52

what are the 3 stages of alcoholic liver disease?

1. alcoholic fatty liver disease
2. alcoholic hepatitis
3. liver cirrhosis

53

in alcoholic fatty liver disease what happens to the nuclei of hepatocytes and the liver?

displaced by fat filled vesicles
liver gets larger

54

in alcoholic hepatitis the patient has fatty liver, damaged hepatocytes - what else happens?

narrowing of the sinusoids and hepatic veins

55

in alcoholic cirrhosis liver tissue is irreversibly damages what happens to hepatocytes? and in turn the liver?

many die and are replaced with fibrous tissue
they cant divide and regenerate
liver shrinks
cant deal with toxins as effectively

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