5.6 Aerobic Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5.6 Aerobic Respiration Deck (56):
1

Where does glycolysis occur?

In the cytoplasm

2

(Glycolysis) 1. Two ATP release two phosphates which attach to what?

Glucose

3

(Glycolysis) 1. what is the process by which the two phosphate attach to glucose?

Phosphorylation

4

(Glycolysis) 1. When the 2 phosphates attach to glucose what molecule is formed?

Hexose bisphosphate

5

(Glycolysis) 2. what does the addition of phosphates do to the glucose?

Destabilise it

6

(Glycolysis) 2. The unstable hexose bisphosphate splits into what?

2 triose phosphates

7

(Glycolysis) 2. What is the process by which the hexose phosphate splits into triose phosphates?

Lysis

8

(Glycolysis) 3. Which process occurs again?

Phosphorylation

9

(Glycolysis) 3. Inorganic phosphate is added to each triose phosphate forming what?

2 triose bisphosphate molecules

10

(Glycolysis) 3. Where do the inorganic phosphates come from?

They're free floating in the cytoplasm

11

(Glycolysis) 4. The triose bisphosphates are oxidised by the removal of what?

Hydrogen

12

(Glycolysis) 4. What is the process by which hydrogen is removed?

Dehydrogenation

13

(Glycolysis) 4. Dehydrogenation of triose bisphosphates form what?

2 pyruvate

14

(Glycolysis) 4. What accept the removed hydrogenated and what is formed?

NAD forming reduced NAD

15

(Glycolysis) 4. Four phosphates are released forming what?

4 ATP

16

In glycolysis what is the net ATP and why?

2 ATP
2 ATP are used, 4 are produced

17

(Glycolysis) what is substrate level phosphorylation?

The formation of ATP without the electron transport chain

18

(Glycolysis) what is done with the reduced NAD?

It is used later to synthesise ATP

19

What is the link reaction otherwise known as?

Oxidative decarboxylation

20

(Link reaction) where does the link reaction occur?

The matrix

21

(Link reaction) why does the link reaction occur in the matrix?

Glucose too large to leave the nucleus
Compartmentalisation
Mitochondria not originally in eukaryotic cells

22

(Link reaction) 1. Co2 is removed from the pyruvate what is the process called?

Decarboxylation

23

(Link reaction) 2. Hydrogen is removed from the pyruvate what is this process?

Oxidation

24

(Link reaction) 2. what is the hydrogen accepted by?

NAD forming reduced NAD which is used in oxidative phosphorylation to synthesise ATP

25

(Link reaction) 3. the removal of CO2 and H converts pyruvate into what?

acetyl group

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(Link reaction) 3. what does the acetyl group combine with?

coenzyme A

27

(Link reaction) 4. what does acetylcoenzyme A do?

delivers acetyl group to krebs cycle

28

(krebs cycle) where does the krebs cycle occur?

matrix of the mitochondria

29

(krebs cycle) how many turns are needed to oxidise one glucose molecule?

2

30

(krebs cycle) what does 2 turns of the krebs cycle yield?

4 CO2
2 ATP
6 NADH
2 FADH2

31

(krebs cycle) what delivers the acetyl group?

acetylcoenzyme A

32

(krebs cycle) the 2 carbon acetyl group combines with what?

4 carbon oxaloacetate

33

(krebs cycle) the 2c acetyl group and 4c oxaloacetate to form what?

6 carbon citrate

34

(krebs cycle) citrate undergoes which two processes regenerating oxaloacetate?

decarboxylation
dehydrogenation

35

(krebs cycle) the dehydrogenation forms what?

3 reduced NADH
1 reduced FADH2

36

(krebs cycle) one ATP is produced by what process?

substrate level phosphorylation

37

(electron transport chain) is also known as what?

oxidative phosphorylation
chemiosmosis

38

(electron transport chain) 1. the hydrogen from reduced NAD dissociates into what?

Hydrogen and electron

39

(electron transport chain) when are high energy electrons released?

when chemical bonds are broken

40

(electron transport chain) 2. where do electrons pass?

carrier to carrier at progressively lower energy levels

41

(electron transport chain) 3. energy is released in what type of reactions?

redox reactions

42

(electron transport chain) 4. the energy released from redox reactions is used to do what?

pump protons from the matrix to the space between the inner and outer membrane

43

(electron transport chain) 5. the proton concentration in the area between the inner and outer membrane increases establishing what?

proton gradient

44

(electron transport chain) 6. protons diffuse down the concentration gradient to the matrix via what?

protein channels

45

(electron transport chain) 7. protein channels have ATP synthase, what do the protons do?

provide energy to phosphorylate ADP to ATP

46

(electron transport chain) 8. what acts as the final electron acceptor and what is formed?

O2 is final acceptor
O2 + H + e = H2O

47

what do coenzymes do?

transfer protons, electrons and functional groups between reactions

48

what would happen without coenzymes?

many respiratory enzymes wouldn't function, redox reactions wouldn't occur, little ATP made

49

what does NAD take part in?

all stages of respiration

50

how many hydrogens does NAD accept?

1

51

when is NAD oxidised?

start of electron transport chain

52

how many ATP does NAD synthesise?

3

53

what does FAD take part in?

krebs cycle

54

how many hydrogens does FAD accept?

2

55

when is FAD oxidised?

later in the electron transport chain

56

how many ATP does FAD synthesise?

2

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