Flashcards in 5.6 Aerobic Respiration Deck (56):
Where does glycolysis occur?
In the cytoplasm
(Glycolysis) 1. Two ATP release two phosphates which attach to what?
(Glycolysis) 1. what is the process by which the two phosphate attach to glucose?
(Glycolysis) 1. When the 2 phosphates attach to glucose what molecule is formed?
(Glycolysis) 2. what does the addition of phosphates do to the glucose?
(Glycolysis) 2. The unstable hexose bisphosphate splits into what?
2 triose phosphates
(Glycolysis) 2. What is the process by which the hexose phosphate splits into triose phosphates?
(Glycolysis) 3. Which process occurs again?
(Glycolysis) 3. Inorganic phosphate is added to each triose phosphate forming what?
2 triose bisphosphate molecules
(Glycolysis) 3. Where do the inorganic phosphates come from?
They're free floating in the cytoplasm
(Glycolysis) 4. The triose bisphosphates are oxidised by the removal of what?
(Glycolysis) 4. What is the process by which hydrogen is removed?
(Glycolysis) 4. Dehydrogenation of triose bisphosphates form what?
(Glycolysis) 4. What accept the removed hydrogenated and what is formed?
NAD forming reduced NAD
(Glycolysis) 4. Four phosphates are released forming what?
In glycolysis what is the net ATP and why?
2 ATP are used, 4 are produced
(Glycolysis) what is substrate level phosphorylation?
The formation of ATP without the electron transport chain
(Glycolysis) what is done with the reduced NAD?
It is used later to synthesise ATP
What is the link reaction otherwise known as?
(Link reaction) where does the link reaction occur?
(Link reaction) why does the link reaction occur in the matrix?
Glucose too large to leave the nucleus
Mitochondria not originally in eukaryotic cells
(Link reaction) 1. Co2 is removed from the pyruvate what is the process called?
(Link reaction) 2. Hydrogen is removed from the pyruvate what is this process?
(Link reaction) 2. what is the hydrogen accepted by?
NAD forming reduced NAD which is used in oxidative phosphorylation to synthesise ATP
(Link reaction) 3. the removal of CO2 and H converts pyruvate into what?
(Link reaction) 3. what does the acetyl group combine with?
(Link reaction) 4. what does acetylcoenzyme A do?
delivers acetyl group to krebs cycle
(krebs cycle) where does the krebs cycle occur?
matrix of the mitochondria
(krebs cycle) how many turns are needed to oxidise one glucose molecule?
(krebs cycle) what does 2 turns of the krebs cycle yield?
(krebs cycle) what delivers the acetyl group?
(krebs cycle) the 2 carbon acetyl group combines with what?
4 carbon oxaloacetate
(krebs cycle) the 2c acetyl group and 4c oxaloacetate to form what?
6 carbon citrate
(krebs cycle) citrate undergoes which two processes regenerating oxaloacetate?
(krebs cycle) the dehydrogenation forms what?
3 reduced NADH
1 reduced FADH2
(krebs cycle) one ATP is produced by what process?
substrate level phosphorylation
(electron transport chain) is also known as what?
(electron transport chain) 1. the hydrogen from reduced NAD dissociates into what?
Hydrogen and electron
(electron transport chain) when are high energy electrons released?
when chemical bonds are broken
(electron transport chain) 2. where do electrons pass?
carrier to carrier at progressively lower energy levels
(electron transport chain) 3. energy is released in what type of reactions?
(electron transport chain) 4. the energy released from redox reactions is used to do what?
pump protons from the matrix to the space between the inner and outer membrane
(electron transport chain) 5. the proton concentration in the area between the inner and outer membrane increases establishing what?
(electron transport chain) 6. protons diffuse down the concentration gradient to the matrix via what?
(electron transport chain) 7. protein channels have ATP synthase, what do the protons do?
provide energy to phosphorylate ADP to ATP
(electron transport chain) 8. what acts as the final electron acceptor and what is formed?
O2 is final acceptor
O2 + H + e = H2O
what do coenzymes do?
transfer protons, electrons and functional groups between reactions
what would happen without coenzymes?
many respiratory enzymes wouldn't function, redox reactions wouldn't occur, little ATP made
what does NAD take part in?
all stages of respiration
how many hydrogens does NAD accept?
when is NAD oxidised?
start of electron transport chain
how many ATP does NAD synthesise?
what does FAD take part in?
how many hydrogens does FAD accept?
when is FAD oxidised?
later in the electron transport chain