5.1 the nervous system Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology > 5.1 the nervous system > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.1 the nervous system Deck (38):
1

what does CNS mean?

central nervous system

2

what does PNS mean?

peripheral nervous system

3

what is the peripheral nervous system split in to?

somatic and autonomic nervous systems

4

what is the autonomic nervous system split into?

the sympathetic and parasympathetic

5

what does the CNS consist of?

the brain and spinal cord

6

what does the PNS consist of and do?

all neurones that connect CNS to the rest of the body
Sensory and motor neurones

7

is the somatic nervous system under conscious or subconscious control?

under conscious control

8

when is the somatic system used?

when you want to voluntarily do something e.g. moving a muscle

9

is the autonomic nervous system under conscious or subconscious control?

subconscious control

10

when is the autonomic nervous system used?

when the body does something automatically without you deciding it - involuntary

11

give an example of what the autonomic nervous system is used for?

heart beat
digesting food

12

where does the autonomic nervous system carry impulses to and from?

internal receptors (input) to smooth muscle and glands (output)

13

where does the somatic nervous system carry impulses to and from?

sense organs (input) to skeletal muscles (output)

14

what is the sympathetic motor system involved in?

fight or flight responses
neurotransmitter - noradrenaline

15

what is the parasympathetic motor system involved in?

relaxing responses
neurotransmitter - acetylcholine

16

give an example of how the autonomic system can come under conscious control:

holding breath
swallowing rapidly

17

why is it important that the autonomic system is unconscious?

frees up areas of the brain
if we had to think about breathing we wouldn't do much else

18

in salivary glands what would sympathetic stimulation involve?

reduced saliva production

19

in salivary glands what would parasympathetic stimulation involve?

increased saliva production

20

in the lungs what would sympathetic stimulation involve?

bronchial muscle relaxed

21

in the lungs what would parasympathetic stimulation involve?

bronchial muscle contracted

22

in the kidneys what would sympathetic stimulation involve?

decreased urine secretion

23

in the kidneys what would parasympathetic stimulation involve?

increased urine secretion

24

why is it important some autonomic functions can come under conscious control?

survival reasons e.g. holding breath to stop breathing underwater

25

what does the cerebrum control?

voluntary actions such as learning, memory, personality and conscious thought

26

what does the cerebellum control?

unconscious function such as posture, balance and non voluntary movement

27

what is the medulla oblongata used in?

autonomic control e.g. heart rate and breathing rate

28

what is the hypothalamus?

the regulatory centre for temperature and water balance

29

what does the pituitary gland do?

stores and releases hormones that regulate many body functions

30

what is the outer layer of the brain called?

the cerebral cortex

31

what is the outer layer split into?

right and left hemisphere
right controls left side of brain
left controls right side of brain

32

what is the frontal lobe involved in?

problem solving, planning, behaviour control, emotion

33

what is the occipital lobe involved in?

vision

34

what is the temporal lobe involved in?

word understanding, memory, emotion

35

why is the cerebrum convoluted?

increases its surface area and capacity for complex activity

36

where is the primary motor cortex found, what happens here?

back of the frontal lobe
motor neurones send out impulses to control movement

37

what could happen if the cerebellum is damaged?

person suffering jerky uncoordinated movement

38

what is the difference between the anterior pituitary gland and the posterior pituitary gland?

anterior - front section producing six hormones and secreting hormones produced by hypothalamus
posterior - stores and releases hormones produced by hypothalamus

Decks in A Level Biology Class (102):