Flashcards in 5.1 the nervous system Deck (38):
what does CNS mean?
central nervous system
what does PNS mean?
peripheral nervous system
what is the peripheral nervous system split in to?
somatic and autonomic nervous systems
what is the autonomic nervous system split into?
the sympathetic and parasympathetic
what does the CNS consist of?
the brain and spinal cord
what does the PNS consist of and do?
all neurones that connect CNS to the rest of the body
Sensory and motor neurones
is the somatic nervous system under conscious or subconscious control?
under conscious control
when is the somatic system used?
when you want to voluntarily do something e.g. moving a muscle
is the autonomic nervous system under conscious or subconscious control?
when is the autonomic nervous system used?
when the body does something automatically without you deciding it - involuntary
give an example of what the autonomic nervous system is used for?
where does the autonomic nervous system carry impulses to and from?
internal receptors (input) to smooth muscle and glands (output)
where does the somatic nervous system carry impulses to and from?
sense organs (input) to skeletal muscles (output)
what is the sympathetic motor system involved in?
fight or flight responses
neurotransmitter - noradrenaline
what is the parasympathetic motor system involved in?
neurotransmitter - acetylcholine
give an example of how the autonomic system can come under conscious control:
why is it important that the autonomic system is unconscious?
frees up areas of the brain
if we had to think about breathing we wouldn't do much else
in salivary glands what would sympathetic stimulation involve?
reduced saliva production
in salivary glands what would parasympathetic stimulation involve?
increased saliva production
in the lungs what would sympathetic stimulation involve?
bronchial muscle relaxed
in the lungs what would parasympathetic stimulation involve?
bronchial muscle contracted
in the kidneys what would sympathetic stimulation involve?
decreased urine secretion
in the kidneys what would parasympathetic stimulation involve?
increased urine secretion
why is it important some autonomic functions can come under conscious control?
survival reasons e.g. holding breath to stop breathing underwater
what does the cerebrum control?
voluntary actions such as learning, memory, personality and conscious thought
what does the cerebellum control?
unconscious function such as posture, balance and non voluntary movement
what is the medulla oblongata used in?
autonomic control e.g. heart rate and breathing rate
what is the hypothalamus?
the regulatory centre for temperature and water balance
what does the pituitary gland do?
stores and releases hormones that regulate many body functions
what is the outer layer of the brain called?
the cerebral cortex
what is the outer layer split into?
right and left hemisphere
right controls left side of brain
left controls right side of brain
what is the frontal lobe involved in?
problem solving, planning, behaviour control, emotion
what is the occipital lobe involved in?
what is the temporal lobe involved in?
word understanding, memory, emotion
why is the cerebrum convoluted?
increases its surface area and capacity for complex activity
where is the primary motor cortex found, what happens here?
back of the frontal lobe
motor neurones send out impulses to control movement
what could happen if the cerebellum is damaged?
person suffering jerky uncoordinated movement