4.2 3 domains and phylogeny Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.2 3 domains and phylogeny Deck (35):
1

what happens to classification systems as we learn more about organisms?

they change

2

what changes as organisms evolve?

their internal and external features as well as their DNA

3

scientists can discover evolutionary relationships by comparing similarities in what?

organisms DNA and proteins

4

what domain system did Carl Woese develop?

the 3 domain system

5

in the 3 domain system organisms are grouped using differences in what?

sequences of nucleotides in cells rRNA
cell membrane lipid structure
sensitivity to antibiotics

6

from the 60s organisms have been classified in which system?

5 kingdom system

7

in the 5 kingdom system what are organism groups based on?

common physical characteristics

8

what are the 3 domains in the 3 domain system?

archaea
bacteria
eukarya

9

how many kingdoms are in the 3 domain system?

6

10

what does the eukarya domain consist of?

80s ribosomes
RNA polymerase contains12 proteins

11

what does the archara domain consist of?

70s ribosomes
RNA polymerase contains- 10 proteins similar to eukaryotic ribosomes

12

what does the bacteria domain consist of?

70s ribosomes
RNA polymerase contains 5 proteins

13

archaea domain contains which kingdom?

archaebacteria kingdom

14

the bacteria domain contains which kingdom?

eubacteria kingdom

15

the eukarya domain contains which kingdoms?

Protista
fungi
plantae
animalia

16

what are archaebacteria?

ancient bacteria

17

where can archaebacteria live? give examples.

extreme environments
e.g. hot thermal conditions, acidic environments, anaerobic conditions

18

give an example of archaebacteria surviving in extreme environments:

methanogens in sewage treatment plants (anaerobic conditions)

19

where are eubacteria found?

found in all environments

20

(Phylogeny) what is phylogeny the study of?

How closely different species are related - the evolutionary relationship between them

21

(Phylogeny) phylogeny is used as a basis for what?

Classification

22

(Phylogeny) what is a phylogeny tree?

Diagram used to represent evolutionary relationships between organisms

23

(Phylogeny) the closer related the species the closer they appear where?

On the tree

24

(Phylogeny) what are found at the base of the tree and what are found at the tips?

Base - earliest species
Tips - most recent species

25

(Phylogeny) trees are produced by looking at differences in what?

Species physical characteristics and genetic makeup

26

(Phylogeny) the set of organisms in the tree is known as what?

A taxa

27

(Phylogeny) the tips of the tree represent group of descendant what?

Taxa- often species

28

(Phylogeny) noses of the tree represent what?

Common ancestors of the descendants

29

(Phylogeny) two descendants splitting from the same group are known as what?

Sister groups

30

(Phylogeny) what is the outgroup?

Taxon outside the group of interest, less closely related

31

(Phylogeny) what does phylogeny consider in classifying animals?

Their genes

32

Give an example of wrong classification based on physical appearance:

Dolphins classified as fish when they are mammals

33

(Phylogeny) phylogenic classification is useful as it takes into account what?

Evolutionary relationships not visible by physical characteristics

34

(Phylogeny) advantage - groups shown according to what rather than being hierarchical?

Shown according to evolutionary position so their evolutionary relationships can be compared

35

(Phylogeny) advantage - classification forms a continuous tree so organisms don't have to be forced into what?

Groups they don't fit in

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