5.3 Kidney Failure Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology > 5.3 Kidney Failure > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.3 Kidney Failure Deck (48):
1

what are 3 reasons for kidney failure?

kidney infections
raised blood pressure
genetic conditions

2

how can kidney infections cause kidney failure?

damage to podocytes and tubules

3

how can raised blood pressure cause kidney failure?

damage structure of epithelial cells and basement membrane of bowman's capsule

4

how can genetic conditions cause kidney failure?

polycystic kidney disease - healthy kidney tissue replaces with cysts or damaged from pressure of cysts

5

if kidneys are affected by high blood pressure what can be found in urine?

protein or blood

6

why can protein be found in urine if kidneys are affected by high pressure?

if basement membrane or podocytes are damaged they no longer act as filters so large proteins can pass into filtrate and urine

7

blood in the urine indicated what isn't working?

filtering process

8

if kidneys completely fail it can lead to loss of electrolyte balance, why?

body cannot excrete excess sodium, potassium and chloride ions causing osmotic imbalances and eventual death

9

if kidneys completely fail it can lead to build up of urea in the blood, what can this do?

poison the cells

10

if kidneys completely fail it can lead to high blood pressure why?

the kidneys play an important role in controlling bp by maintaining osmotic balance of blood

11

if kidneys completely fail it can lead to high blood pressure which can lead to what?

heart problems and strokes

12

if kidneys completely fail it can lead to weak bones, why?

calcium phosphorus balance in blood is lost

13

if kidneys completely fail it can lead to pain and stiff joints, why?

abnormal proteins build up in blood

14

if kidneys completely fail it can lead to anaemia, why?

kidneys involved in producing erythropoietin which stimulates rbc formation, kidney failure reduces rbc production

15

(GFR) what is GFR?

glomerular filtration rate

16

(GFR) what is the GFR used as a measure to indicate?

kidney failure

17

(GFR) kidney problems almost always affect what?

blood filtration rate in Bowmans capsule

18

(GFR) a blood test measures level of what in the blood?

creatine

19

(GFR) what is creatine and what does it give an estimate of?

breakdown product of muscles
glomerular filtration rate

20

(GFR) if levels of creatine increase what is it a sign of?

kidneys not working

21

(GFR) what do normal GFRs not fall below?

70

22

(GFR) it is kidney failure when GFR falls below what?

15 - kidneys are filtering so little they are virtually ineffective

23

(haemodialysis) this dialysis uses what?

a dialysis machine

24

(haemodialysis) blood leaves patient via artery into dialysis machine where it flows between what?

partially permeable dialysis membranes

25

(haemodialysis) what do the partially permeable dialysis membranes mimic?

the basement membrane of the bowman's capsule

26

(haemodialysis) on the other side of the basement membrane what is there?

dialysis fluid

27

(haemodialysis) in dialysis it is vital patients lose what?

excess urea

28

(haemodialysis) in dialysis it is vital patients retain useful substances such as what?

glucose
some mineral ions

29

(haemodialysis) loss of substances in dialysis is controlled by what?

the dialysis fluid

30

(haemodialysis) what does the dialysis fluid contain normal levels of and why?

plasma levels of glucose to ensure there is no net movement of glucose out of blood
normal mineral ion levels so any excess moves out of blood into dialysis fluid restoring electrolyte balance

31

(haemodialysis) what does dialysis fluid contain none of and why?

urea
creates steep concentration gradient so urea leaves blood into dialysis fluid

32

(haemodialysis) why do blood and dialysis fluid flow in opposite directions?

to maintain a countercurrent exchange system and maximise exchange

33

(haemodialysis) how long does the dialysis take and how often does it have to be repeated?

8 hours, several times a week

34

(haemodialysis) what do patients on dialysis have to monitor carefully?

fluid intake
diet - little protein and salt

35

(peritoneal dialysis) what does peritoneal dialysis make use of?

natural dialysis membranes formed by lining of abdomen (peritoneum)

36

(peritoneal dialysis) using a catheter what happens to the dialysis fluid?

introduced to abdomen

37

(peritoneal dialysis) how does peritoneal dialysis work?

left for hours, urea and excess mineral ions pass out of blood into tissue fluid and out across peritoneal membrane into dialysis fluid

38

(peritoneal dialysis) what happens to the fluid after?

drained of and discarded

39

(transplant) a healthy donor kidney is placed in the body, what is joined?

blood vessels
ureter inserted into bladder

40

(transplant) what is the main issue of transplants?

risk of rejection

41

(transplant) how is risk of rejection reduced?

antigens of donor organ and recipient matched as closely as possible
immunosuppressant drugs to prevent rejection

42

(transplant) if the immune system recognises that the antigens of the donor organ are different what can it result in?

rejection and destruction of the new kidney

43

(transplant) what is a disadvantage of immunosuppressant drugs?

prevent immune system responding effectively to infectious disease - have to take great care

44

(transplant) the average transplanted kidney functions how long?

9-10 years

45

what is more available dialysis or donor organs?

dialysis

46

what is the main source of donor organs?

from those who die suddenly carrying an organ donor card

47

what is an issue of long term dialysis?

expensive
damage

48

there is hope new kidneys can be grown from what?

stem cells perhaps without antigens that trigger the immune system

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