5.2 Diabetes Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology > 5.2 Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.2 Diabetes Deck (41):
1

in type 1 diabetes what are you unable to produce?

insulin

2

why dont you produce insulin? (Type 1)

beta cells in islets of langerhan don't produce it

3

is the cause of type 1 diabetes known?

no

4

when does type 1 diabetes usually begin?

in childhood

5

what has it been suggested the immune system does in type 1 diabetes?

attacks its own beta cells

6

what can type 1 diabetes be controlled with?

regular insulin injections

7

a person with type 1 regularly checks their blood glucose concentration, how?

usually by pricking their finger

8

based on their blood glucose concentration what can a person with type 1 diabetes calculate?

how much insulin to inject

9

(Type 1) the amount of insulin injected does what to the amount of glucose absorbed by cells?

increases it

10

(type 1) the insulin injected also causes which g?

glycogenesis resulting in reduction of blood glucose concentration

11

when does hypoglycaemia occur?

when too much insulin is injected resulting in low blood glucose

12

when does hyperglycaemia occur?

when too little insulin is injected resulting in high blood glucose

13

what can be the result of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia?

unconsciousness and even death

14

in type 2 diabetes what can you not effectively do?

use insulin to control blood sugar levels

15

what 2 things can happen in type 2 diabetes?

beta cells don't produce enough insulin
body cells don't respond properly to insulin

16

why can body cells lose responsiveness to insulin? (type 2)

glycoprotein insulin receptor doesn't work so they don't take up enough glucose

17

what is type 2 diabetes associated with?

excess weight
lack of exercise
overeating refined carbohydrates

18

your risk of type 2 diabetes increases with what?

age

19

are symptoms more or less severe in type 2 diabetes?

less

20

do symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop quickly or slowly?

slowly

21

what is the first line of action in treating type 2?

regulating carbohydrate intake and matching it with exercise levels

22

if overweight, what are type 2 patients encouraged to do?

lose weight

23

the second line of action in treating type 2 involves using drugs, what do they do?

stimulate insulin production
slow down the rate the body absorbs glucose from the intestine

24

what is the final course of action for type 2 diabetes?

injections

25

where was insulin originally taken from?

cows and pigs

26

what were the issues of taking insulin from cows and pigs?

difficult and expensive process
could cause allergic reactions

27

since the structure of human insulin was found what is possible?

making of medically produced insulin by genetically modified bacteria

28

what are the strengths of medically produced insulin?

less likely to cause reaction
produced in higher quantities
cheaper production costs
overcome ethical concerns of using animal products in humans

29

how many people a year with diabetes receive a pancreas transplant?

1000

30

what are issues with pancreas transplants?

demand outweighs availability
risks

31

injections of pancreatic B islet cells have been attempted but what percent have been successful?

fewer than 8%

32

what drugs can be given with transplant or injection?

immunosuppressant

33

what do immunosuppressant drugs do? what is a risk?

reduce chances of rejection but they can leave a person susceptible to infection

34

it has been suggested a small number of islet cells could do what in a type 1 diabetic?

restore insulin production

35

what cell type could form islet cells?

totipotent stem cells

36

what do totipotent stem cells have the potential to do?

form any cell types

37

what is an ethical issue of using stem cells?

destruction of embryo
potential life

38

what is an argument for using stem cells from embryos?

they would be destroyed anyways - leftover from IVF

39

one benefit of stem cell use is donor availability, why is this a benefit?

stem cells produce unlimited source of beta cells

40

embryonic stem cells also have a reduced chance of what?

rejection

41

what is another strength for the patients?

no longer have to inject themselves with insulin

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