Flashcards in 5.2 Diabetes Deck (41):
in type 1 diabetes what are you unable to produce?
why dont you produce insulin? (Type 1)
beta cells in islets of langerhan don't produce it
is the cause of type 1 diabetes known?
when does type 1 diabetes usually begin?
what has it been suggested the immune system does in type 1 diabetes?
attacks its own beta cells
what can type 1 diabetes be controlled with?
regular insulin injections
a person with type 1 regularly checks their blood glucose concentration, how?
usually by pricking their finger
based on their blood glucose concentration what can a person with type 1 diabetes calculate?
how much insulin to inject
(Type 1) the amount of insulin injected does what to the amount of glucose absorbed by cells?
(type 1) the insulin injected also causes which g?
glycogenesis resulting in reduction of blood glucose concentration
when does hypoglycaemia occur?
when too much insulin is injected resulting in low blood glucose
when does hyperglycaemia occur?
when too little insulin is injected resulting in high blood glucose
what can be the result of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia?
unconsciousness and even death
in type 2 diabetes what can you not effectively do?
use insulin to control blood sugar levels
what 2 things can happen in type 2 diabetes?
beta cells don't produce enough insulin
body cells don't respond properly to insulin
why can body cells lose responsiveness to insulin? (type 2)
glycoprotein insulin receptor doesn't work so they don't take up enough glucose
what is type 2 diabetes associated with?
lack of exercise
overeating refined carbohydrates
your risk of type 2 diabetes increases with what?
are symptoms more or less severe in type 2 diabetes?
do symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop quickly or slowly?
what is the first line of action in treating type 2?
regulating carbohydrate intake and matching it with exercise levels
if overweight, what are type 2 patients encouraged to do?
the second line of action in treating type 2 involves using drugs, what do they do?
stimulate insulin production
slow down the rate the body absorbs glucose from the intestine
what is the final course of action for type 2 diabetes?
where was insulin originally taken from?
cows and pigs
what were the issues of taking insulin from cows and pigs?
difficult and expensive process
could cause allergic reactions
since the structure of human insulin was found what is possible?
making of medically produced insulin by genetically modified bacteria
what are the strengths of medically produced insulin?
less likely to cause reaction
produced in higher quantities
cheaper production costs
overcome ethical concerns of using animal products in humans
how many people a year with diabetes receive a pancreas transplant?
what are issues with pancreas transplants?
demand outweighs availability
injections of pancreatic B islet cells have been attempted but what percent have been successful?
fewer than 8%
what drugs can be given with transplant or injection?
what do immunosuppressant drugs do? what is a risk?
reduce chances of rejection but they can leave a person susceptible to infection
it has been suggested a small number of islet cells could do what in a type 1 diabetic?
restore insulin production
what cell type could form islet cells?
totipotent stem cells
what do totipotent stem cells have the potential to do?
form any cell types
what is an ethical issue of using stem cells?
destruction of embryo
what is an argument for using stem cells from embryos?
they would be destroyed anyways - leftover from IVF
one benefit of stem cell use is donor availability, why is this a benefit?
stem cells produce unlimited source of beta cells
embryonic stem cells also have a reduced chance of what?