Flashcards in 5.4 Defences To Herbivory Deck (33):
What are some physical defences plants have to prevent them being eaten?
(Chemical defences) tannins are compounds called what?
(Chemical defences) how are phenols defences?
They have a bitter taste
Toxic to insects as they inactivate enzymes in their saliva
(Chemical defences) what are rich in tannins?
(Chemical defences) alkaloids are bitter tasting compounds found where?
In nitrogenous plants
(Chemical defences) alkaloids act as drugs affecting what?
The metabolism of animals
Even poisoning animals
(Chemical defences) what are some alkaloids?
(Chemical defences) caffeine is toxic to what?
(Chemical defences) nicotine is produced where?
Roots of tobacco plants stored in vacuoles
(Chemical defences) terpenoids are a large group of compounds forming what?
(Chemical defences) terpenoids can be toxins to what?
Insects and fungi attaching the plant
(Chemical defences) pyrethrin acts as a neurotoxin doing what?
Interfering with the nervous system if the animals consuming it
(Chemical defences) citronella produced by lemon grass acts as what?
(Pheromones) what is a pheromone?
Chemical made by an organism affecting the social behaviour of other members of the same species
(Pheromones) plants do not behave socially but sometimes use what?
(Pheromones) if a maple tree is attacked by insects what happens?
Releases pheromone absorbed by leaves on other branches
(Pheromones) the pheromone absorbed by the leaves causes them to produce what?
Callose to protect them
(Pheromones) there is evidence plants can communicate by pheromones in which system?
Telling another plant if they are under water stress
(VOCs) what are VOCs?
Volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) they act like pheromones between what?
Themselves and other organisms
(VOCs) they diffuse where?
Into the air in and around the plant
(VOCs) are made when the plant detects and attack by what and how?
By chemicals in their saliva
(VOCs) thought to elicit what?
(VOCs) cabbages - attacked by caterpillars produce a chemical signal attracting what?
The parasitic wasp cotesia glomerata
(VOCs) cabbages - the wasp lays its eggs where?
Inside caterpillar larva so they are eaten alive when they hatch
(VOCs) cabbages - this signal deters other cabbage white butterflies from doing what?
Laying their eggs
(VOCs) apples - when apple trees are attacked by spider mites they produce VOCs that do what?
Attract predatory mites that eat the spider mites
(VOCs) wheat - some wheat seedlings produce VOCs when attacked by aphids doing what?
Repelling other aphids
(Folding) what plant can you see move?
(Folding) the mimosa pudica contains toxic alkaloid and its stem has what?
(Folding) if leaves are touched what do they do?
Fold down and collapse
(Folding) what do scientists think this lead folding does?
Scares off large herbivores and dislodges small insects