27 Brain abscess and other CNS infections. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 27 Brain abscess and other CNS infections. Deck (13):
1

What are the bacterial causes of brain abscess? (4)

Often polymicrobial.
60% Streptococcus milleri.
Staph aureus if trauma/surgery.
E.coli.
Pseudomonas.

2

What are the insidious causes of brain abscess? (4)

M tuberculosis.
Toxoplasma gondii.
Nocardia.
Actinomyces.

3

What are the pathogeneses of brain abscess? (4)

Contiguous spread: ear/teeth.
Haematogenous (endocarditis).
Trauma (inc surgery).
Cryptogenic.

4

What is the presentation of a brain abscess? (7)

Headache, dizziness, seizures.
Focal neurological deficit.
Fever, N+V.
Neck stiffness.

5

How are brain abscess managed?
Why? (5)

Drainage.
Reduces kPa, confirms diagnosis, pus for microbiology, enhance antibiotic efficacy, avoid ventricular spread.

6

Which antibiotics achieve therapeutic concentration in intracranial pus? (6)

Ampicillin
Penicillin
Cefuroxime
Cefotaxime
Ceftazadime
Metroniadzole

7

What are the complications of a brain abscess? (4)

Raised intracranial pressure.
Mass effect.
Coning.
Rupture and ventriculitis.

8

What is a subdural empyema?

Infection between dura and arachnoid matter.

9

What are the causes of a subdural empyema? (5)

Anaerobes.
Streptococci.
S.pneumoniae
H.influenzae
S.aureus.

10

What is the pathogenesis of a subdural empyema? (4)

Spread from sinuses, middle ear or blood.
Trauma/surgery.

11

What is the most common cause of a external ventricular drain infection?
Treatment?

Coagulase -ve staphylococci.
Device removal and IV antibiotics.

12

What is the presentation of a subdural empyema? (5)

Headache
Fever
Neurological deficit
Seizure
Coma

13

How are subdural empyemas managed?

Drainage of pus.
Antibiotics.

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