3- Paediatric Hip, Knee, Spine, Foot and Ankle Conditions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3- Paediatric Hip, Knee, Spine, Foot and Ankle Conditions Deck (31)
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1

What happens in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)?

Dislocation/subluxation of femoral head during perinatal period

2

Girls are more commonly affected by DDH than boys. True/False?

True

3

List risk factors for DDH

Family history
Breech delivery
First-born
Down's syndrome

4

List clinical features of DDH

Shortened limbs
Asymmetric groin
Thigh skin creases
Ortolani/Barlow +ve tests

5

Describe a +ve Ortolani test

Click upon reducing a dislocated hip with abduction + anterior displacement

6

Describe a +ve Barlow test

Clunk upon dislocating a hip with adduction + posterior displacement

7

What is the name of the special harness used to keep hips in comfortable flexion and abduction?

Pavlik harness

8

When does transient synovitis of the hip usually occur?

After an URT infection

9

Boys are less affected by transient synovitis of the hip than girls. True/False?

False
More affected

10

Is transient synovitis the commonest cause of hip pain in childhood?

Yes

11

List clinical features of transient synovitis

Limp
Reluctance to weight bear
Restricted motion
Low fever

12

Outline treatment for transient synovitis

NSAIDs and rest
Should resolve, if not seek other diagnosis

13

What is Perthes disease?

Idiopathic osteochondritis of the femoral head, causing necrosis + abnormal growth

14

What happens to the femoral head as a result of Perthes disease?

Loses its blood supply
Necrosis
Abnormal growth
Collapse/fracture

15

Who usually gets Perthes disease?

Boys 5:1 girls
Between age of 4-9

16

List clinical features of Perthes disease

Pain
Limp
Loss of internal rotation
Loss of abduction
Trendellenburg +ve

17

In slipper upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), in which direction does the femoral head epiphysis move?

Inferiorly in relation to femoral neck

18

Who does SUFE typically affect?

Overweight, pre-pubertal adolescent boys

19

List clinical features of SUFE

Pain
Limp
PAIN IN THE KNEE (so examine hip!)
Loss of internal rotation of hip

20

How is SUFE treated?

Pin the femoral head to prevent further slippage

21

Anterior knee pain in adolescence is common. True/False?

True

22

At what age period is dislocation/subluxation of the patella most common?

Adolescence

23

What is another name for talipes equinovarus?

Clubfoot

24

How does clubfoot arise?

In-utero abnormal alignment of joints between talus, calcaneus and navicular

25

List clinical features of clubfoot

Ankle equinus (plantarflexion)
Supinated forefoot
Varus forefoot
Contracted soft tissue

26

Girls get clubfoot more than boys. True/False?

False
Boys 2:1 girls

27

Outline treatment for clubfoot

Splintage (Ponseti technique)
Surgery

28

Back pain in a child/adolescent is a red flag sign. True/False?

True

29

In scoliosis, which way does the spine curve?

Laterally

30

What is spondylolisthesis?

Slippage of one vertebra over another