Flashcards in 5- Trauma Deck (35)
What is the medical term for a broken bone?
Give examples of situations that would cause high-energy fractures
fall from height
What is meant by a pathological fracture?
Underlying bone disease/weakness causes the fracture
What is meant by primary/first-intention bone healing?
Minimal fracture gap (hairline) is bridged by new bone formation by osteoblasts
What is meant by secondary bone healing?
Gap needs to be filled to act as a scaffold for new bone formation
Ourline the fracture process of secondary bone healing
Haematoma + inflammation
Macrophages + osteoclasts remove debris
Granulation tissue forms + angiogenesis
Chondroblasts form soft cartilage callus
Osteoblasts lay down type 1 collagen
Calcium mineralisation produces hard callus
Remodelling with organisation
When does soft callus usually form by?
When does hard callus usually form by?
What lifestyle habit may severely impair fracture healing?
List the 5 basic fracture patterns
Describe a transverse fracture
Bending force causing horizontal break
Describe an oblique fracture
Shearing force causing diagonal break
Describe a spiral fracture
Tortional force causing diagonal + circular break
Describe a comminuted fracture
Has 3 or more fragments, usually due to high-energy injury
Describe a segmental fracture
Bone fractures in two separate places
What is meant by an intraarticular fracture?
Fracture at the end of a long bone extending into a joint
When describing a fracture, displacement is described by the tranlation of the proximal fragment. True/False?
Displacement describes direction of translation of the distal fragment
How is anterior/posterior and medial/lateral displacement in the forearm/hand described?
What does angulation of a fracture describe?
Which way the distal fragment points
List clinical signs of a fracture
List the factors that should be considered when assessing an injured limb
Skin/soft tissue status
List ways of checking neurovascular status
Which XRAY views are usually used to assess the personality of a fracture?
When is CT useful for assessing fractures?
Complex bones (vertebrae, pelvis, feet)
Outline initial management of a long bone fracture
What type of splint is useful for femoral shaft fractures?
Describe a fracture that would be considered "stable" and be treated with a period of splintage + rehab
How can unstable/acceptable fractures be treated?
List materials that can be used in surgical stabilisation/open reduction and internal fixation
Plates and screws