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Flashcards in 5- Trauma Deck (35)
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1

What is the medical term for a broken bone?

Fracture

2

Give examples of situations that would cause high-energy fractures

RTA
gunshot
fall from height
bomb blast

3

What is meant by a pathological fracture?

Underlying bone disease/weakness causes the fracture

4

What is meant by primary/first-intention bone healing?

Minimal fracture gap (hairline) is bridged by new bone formation by osteoblasts

5

What is meant by secondary bone healing?

Gap needs to be filled to act as a scaffold for new bone formation

6

Ourline the fracture process of secondary bone healing

Fracture
Haematoma + inflammation
Macrophages + osteoclasts remove debris
Granulation tissue forms + angiogenesis
Chondroblasts form soft cartilage callus
Osteoblasts lay down type 1 collagen
Calcium mineralisation produces hard callus
Remodelling with organisation

7

When does soft callus usually form by?

2-3weeks

8

When does hard callus usually form by?

6-12weeks

9

What lifestyle habit may severely impair fracture healing?

Smoking

10

List the 5 basic fracture patterns

Transverse
Oblique
Spiral
Comminuted
Segmental

11

Describe a transverse fracture

Bending force causing horizontal break

12

Describe an oblique fracture

Shearing force causing diagonal break

13

Describe a spiral fracture

Tortional force causing diagonal + circular break

14

Describe a comminuted fracture

Has 3 or more fragments, usually due to high-energy injury

15

Describe a segmental fracture

Bone fractures in two separate places

16

What is meant by an intraarticular fracture?

Fracture at the end of a long bone extending into a joint

17

When describing a fracture, displacement is described by the tranlation of the proximal fragment. True/False?

False
Displacement describes direction of translation of the distal fragment

18

How is anterior/posterior and medial/lateral displacement in the forearm/hand described?

Volar/dorsal
Ulnar/radial

19

What does angulation of a fracture describe?

Which way the distal fragment points

20

List clinical signs of a fracture

Localised tenderness
Swelling
Deformity
Crepitus

21

List the factors that should be considered when assessing an injured limb

Open/closed
Neurovascular status
Compartment syndrome
Skin/soft tissue status

22

List ways of checking neurovascular status

Capillary refill
Pulses
Temperature
Colour
Sensation
Motor power

23

Which XRAY views are usually used to assess the personality of a fracture?

AP
Lateral

24

When is CT useful for assessing fractures?

Complex bones (vertebrae, pelvis, feet)

25

Outline initial management of a long bone fracture

Clinical assessment
Analgesia
Splint/immobilise
Imaging

26

What type of splint is useful for femoral shaft fractures?

Thomas splint

27

Describe a fracture that would be considered "stable" and be treated with a period of splintage + rehab

Undisplaced
Minimally displaced
Minimally angulated

28

How can unstable/acceptable fractures be treated?

Reduction
Cast application
Surgical stabilisation

29

List materials that can be used in surgical stabilisation/open reduction and internal fixation

Plates and screws
Intramedullary nails
Cerclage wires

30

List early local complications of fractures

Compartment syndrome
Vascular injury/ischaemia
Nerve damage
Skin necrosis