6- Adult Regional Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6- Adult Regional Trauma Deck (82)
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1

When spinal shock occurs, loss of motor function and sensation occurs above the level of the injury. True/False?

False
BELOW the level of the injury

2

What normal body reflex is absent in spinal shock?

Bulbocavernous reflex

3

Describe complete spinal cord injury

No sensory or voluntary motor function below level of injury

4

Describe incomplete spinal cord injury

Some neurologic function present distal to level of injury

5

The presence of sacral spinal cord sparing in spinal cord injury indicates a better prognosis. True/False?

True

6

Pelvic fractures are more common in which age groups?

Young patients (high energy)
Old patients (osteoporosis)

7

Name the bones that form the pelvic ring

Sacrum
Ilium
Ischium
Pubic bones

8

How is the pelvic ring like a polo mint?

If it breaks in one place, it will inevitably break in another part

9

What happens in lateral compression fracture of pelvis? Give an example

One half of pelvis is displaced medially
e.g. RTA

10

What happens in vertical shear fractures of the pelvis? Give an example

One half of pelvis is displaced superiorly
e.g. fall from height

11

What happens in anteroposterior compression injury of the pelvis? Give an example

Disruption of pubic symphysis (open-book-pelvis)
e.g. motorcycle accident

12

What neurovascular structures are at risk in pelvic fractures?

Branches of internal iliac artery
Venous plexus
Lumbo-sacral plexus

13

A PR exam is mandatory in pelvic fractures. True/False?

True
Assess sacral nerve root function, check blood

14

What is the most common mechanism of injury in proximal humerus fractures?

Low energy osteoporotic injury due to FOOSH

15

Which part of the proximal humerus is most commonly fractured?

Surgical neck

16

In which direction does the humeral shaft usually displace in proximal humerus fractures?

Medially (due to pull of pectoralis major)

17

What is the mainstay treatment for proximal humerus fractures?

Sling immobilisation
Internal fixation if recurrent displacement

18

Which direction of shoulder dislocation is most common?

Anterior

19

What is a Bankart lesion?

Anterior shoulder dislocation causes detachment of glenoid labrum and capsule

20

What is a Hill-Sachs lesion?

Posterior humeral head impacts anterior glenoid, causing impaction fracture of posterior humeral head

21

Which nerve is at risk in shoulder dislocation?

Axillary nerve
Also other nerves of brachial plexus

22

What is the characteristic sign on XRAY in posterior shoulder dislocation?

Lightbulb sign

23

What is the principle sign of axillary nerve injury?

Loss of sensation in badge-patch area

24

What is the mainstay of treatment for anterior shoulder dislocation?

Closed reduction under sedation/anaesthetic
Sling 2-3wks

25

Describe the relationship between risk of recurrent shoulder dislocation and age of the patient

Patients under 20yrs have 80% risk of re-dislocation; patients over 30yrs have 20% risk

26

What is involved in Bankart repair?

Reattach torn labrum and capsule via arthroscopy/open repair

27

How do injuries of the ACJ usually occur?

Fall onto the point of the shoulder

28

In subluxation of the ACJ, what is usually ruptured?

Acromioclavicular ligaments

29

In dislocation of the ACJ, what is usually ruptured?

Coracoclavicular ligaments

30

Up to how many degrees of angulation are accepted in humeral shaft fractures? Why?

30'
Mobility of shoulder and elbow joint aid union