Flashcards in 4- Foot and Ankle Conditions Deck (24)
What is hallux valgus?
Lateral deviation of the big toe
Hallux valgus is commoner in males. True/False?
Females 4:1 males
What is a bunion?
Inflamed bursa over the 1st metatarsal head
List conservative treatment for hallux valgus
Wearing more accommodating shoes
Spacers between 1st webspace
Surgery for cosmesis in hallux valgus is really effective and patients are usually super happy. True/False?
Quite the contrary.
What is hallux rigidus?
OA of the 1st metatarso-phalangeal joint
What is the gold standard surgical treatment for hallux rigidus?
Arthrodesis - alleviates pain but reduced motion
Arthrodesis prevents women wearing high-heels. True/False?
What is Morton's neuroma?
Irritation of plantar interdigital nerves, causing inflammation and swelling (neuroma)
List clinical features of Morton's neuroma
Pain/tingling radiating within toes
Loss of sensation in webspace
What is a Mulder's +ve click test for Morton's neuroma?
Compression of metatarsal heads causes symptoms/clicking
Women are more affected by Morton's neuroma - what is a significant implicated cause of this?
Where do metatarsal stress fractures usually occur?
List aetiology for Achilles tendonitis
Repetitive strain (sports)
Steroid injections are contraindicated at the Achilles tendon. True/False?
What clinical test is used to define tendon rupture?
Simmonds test (no plantarflexion of foot when calf is squeezed)
List proposed causative factors for plantar fasciitis
Walking on hard floors
Poor cushioning in shoes
Where does the tibialis posterior tendon predominately insert?
What is pes cavus?
Abnormal high arch of the foot
Describe claw toes
Hyperextension at MTPJ
Hyperflexion at PIPJ + DIPJ
Describe hammer toes
Hyperextension at DIPJ + MTPJ
Hyperflexion at PIPJ
Describe mallet toes
Hyperflexion at DIPJ
What is the most common cause of acquired pes planus in adults?
Tibialis posterior dysfunction